Measuring the employees’ environmental attitude of agricultural knowledge-based companies based on sociocultural components: a case study from Iran

  • Pouria Ataei
  • Vahid Aliabadi
  • Arash Norouzi
  • Hassan Sadighi
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Environmental attitude is a crucial component in environmental psychology. It is a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating the natural environment with some degree of favor or disfavor. The main aim of this study was to determine the environmental attitude levels of the employees of the agricultural knowledge-based companies based on sociocultural variables by binomial logistic regression in an inferential design. The research population was composed of the employees of the agricultural knowledge-based companies (N = 175). In this study, a census method was used. The research instrument was a self-designed questionnaire which composed of three sections. The first section was related to employees’ demographic and sociocultural characteristics. The second and third sections were to measure employees’ environmental knowledge and attitude. NEP scale was used to measure environmental attitude. The SPSS20 and R software packages were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that governmental policies, mass media, membership in the NGOs, educational level and training have significant effect on employees’ attitudes to the environment protection. Therefore, it is concluded that environmental attitude of agricultural knowledge-based companies’ employees is influenced by a set of factors. These factors alone cannot change employees’ attitude toward sustainability and environment. Accordingly, necessary and appropriate conditions should be provided to change the environmental attitude of agricultural knowledge-based companies’ employees. These conditions will be provided by government policies, types of mass media, various training and employee participation in NGOs.

Keywords

Knowledge-based companies Environmental attitude Environmental knowledge Environmental sustainability 

References

  1. Adhami, A., & Akbarzadeh, E. (2011). Examine the cultural factors affecting the preservation of the urban environment (Case Study: Tehran zones 5 and 18). Journal of Sociology, 1(1), 624–638.Google Scholar
  2. Ahn, J.-M., Koo, D.-M., & Chang, H.-S. (2012). Different impacts of normative influences on pro-environmental purchasing behavior explained by differences in individual characteristics. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 22(2), 163–182.  https://doi.org/10.1080/12297119.2012.655098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajdari, A. (2003). The cultural and environment development. Environmental Protection Agency Science Quarterly, 47, 27–39.Google Scholar
  4. Akomolafe, C. O. (2011). Impact of personal factors on environmental education in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 1(1), 559–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baar, S. (2007). Factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviors: A U.K. case study of household waste management. Environment and Behavior, 39(4), 435–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bahk, C. (2010). Environmental education through narrative films: Impact of medicine man on attitudes toward forest preservation. Journal of Environmental Education, 42(1), 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903479811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balzarova, M. A., & Castka, P. (2008). Underlying mechanisms in the maintenance of ISO 14001 environmental management system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(18), 1949–1957.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.01.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbas, T. A., Paraskevopoulos, S., & Stamou, A. G. (2009). The effect of nature documentaries on students’ environmental sensitivity: A case study. Learning, Media and Technology, 34(1), 61–69.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439880902759943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck, M. J., Rose, J. M., & Hensher, D. A. (2013). Environmental attitudes and emissions charging: An example of policy implications for vehicle choice. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 50, 171–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2013.01.015.Google Scholar
  10. Blum, N. (2008). Environmental education in Costa Rica: Building a framework for sustainable development? International Journal of Educational Development, 28(3), 348–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2007.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradford, J., & Fraser, E. D. G. (2008). Local authorities, climate change and small and medium enterprises: Identifying effective policy instruments to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(3), 156–172.  https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bronfman, N. C., Cisternas, P. C., López-Vázquez, E., De la Maza, C., & Oyanedel, J. C. (2015). Understanding attitudes and pro-environmental behaviors in a Chilean community. Sustainability (Switzerland), 7(10), 14133–14152.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su71014133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brotherton, B. (1998). Developing a culture and infrastructure to support research-related activity in further education institutions: A knowledge-based organisation perspective. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 3(3), 311–328.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13596749800200035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brulle, R. J. (2010). Politics and the Environment. In K. T. Leicht & J. C. Jenkins (Eds.), Handbook of politics: State and society in global perspective (pp. 385–406). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campion, P., & Shrum, W. (2002). Environmental attitudes of scientists in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala: Evidence on NGOs and traditional research sectors. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 37(1), 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cloquell-Ballester, V. A., Monterde-Díaz, R., Cloquell-Ballester, V. A., & Torres-Sibille, Ad C. (2008). Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: Methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region. Journal of Environmental Management, 87(3), 507–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Del Chiappa, G., & Lorenzo-Romero, C. (2014). Environmental issues to profile the consumers’ attitude: A latent segmentation approach. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13(10), 2449–2457.Google Scholar
  19. Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erhabor, N. I., & Don, J. U. (2016). Impact of environmental education on the knowledge and attitude of students towards the environment. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(12), 5367–5375.Google Scholar
  21. Fielding, K. S., & Hornsey, M. J. (2016). A social identity analysis of climate change and environmental attitudes and behaviors: Insights and opportunities. Frontiers in Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00121.Google Scholar
  22. Gadenne, D. L., Kennedy, J., & McKeiver, C. (2009). An empirical study of environmental awareness and practices in SMEs. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(1), 45–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9672-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Geravandi, S., Papzan, A., & Afsharzadeh, N. (2011). Modeling sustainable environmental development using grounded theory (Case study: Sharveineh Village, Javanroud Township). Housing and Rural Environment, 30(136), 67–78.Google Scholar
  24. Haghighatiyan, M., Pourafkari, N., & Jafarinia, G. (2013). The effect of ecological-social behaviors on social development (Case of Study: The Southern Pars Staff). Journal of Iranian Social Development Studies, 5(1), 135–151.Google Scholar
  25. Harness, H., & Drossman, H. (2011). The environmental education through filmmaking project. Environmental Education Research, 17(6), 829–849.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2011.618626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. He, X., Hong, T., Liu, L., & Tiefenbacher, J. (2011). A comparative study of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among university students in China. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 20(2), 91–104.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10382046.2011.564783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hidalgo, A., & Albors, J. (2008). Innovation management techniques and tools: A review from theory and practice. R&D Management, 38(2), 113–127.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2008.00503.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang, B., Yabe, M., Xia, W., & Zeng, Y. (2010). Understanding crisis-based communication on environmental protection in China: Mass media and individuals. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 55(2), 419–426.Google Scholar
  29. Hussey, D. M., & Eagan, P. D. (2007). Using structural equation modeling to test environmental performance in small and medium-sized manufacturers: Can SEM help SMEs? Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(4), 303–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ioan, C. C., & Carcea, M. I. (2013). Awareness and environmental attitude in the context sustainable development within a knowledge-based society. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 12(8), 1629–1636.Google Scholar
  31. Izadi, N., & Hayati, D. (2014). Appraising Iranian maize growers’ ecological behavior: Application of path analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16(5), 993–1003.Google Scholar
  32. Jamini, D., Ghadermarzi, H., Mafakheri, A., Jamshidi, A., & Nikbakht, S. (2013). Investigation and assessment of factors that influence sustainable farming: A case study of rice farmers in Shirvan Cherdavel Town, Ilam province, Iran. International Journal of Agri-Science, 3(6), 444–452.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, B., & Činčera, J. (2015). Examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour in education programmes. Socialni Studia, 12(3), 97–111.Google Scholar
  34. Kalantari, K., & Asadi, A. (2010). Designing a structural model for explaining environmental attitude and behavior of urban residents (Case of Tehran). International Journal of Environmental Research, 4(2), 309–320.Google Scholar
  35. Kalantari, K., Fami, H. S., Asadi, A., & Mohammadi, H. M. (2007). Investigating factors affecting environmental behavior of urban residents: A case study in Tehran City—Iran. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(2), 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Köse, S., Gencer, A. S., Gezer, K., Erol, G. H., & Bilen, K. (2011). Investigation of undergraduate students’ environmental attitudes. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 1(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  37. Lee, T. H., & Jan, F. H. (2015). The influence of recreation experience and environmental attitude on the environmentally responsible behavior of community-based tourists in Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(7), 1063–1094.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1032298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lithourgidis, C. S., Stamatelatou, K., & Damalas, C. A. (2016). Farmers’ attitudes towards common farming practices in northern Greece: Implications for environmental pollution. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 105(2), 103–116.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-016-9778-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Makki, M. H., Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Boujaoude, S. (2003). Lebanese secondary school students’ environmental knowledge and attitudes. Environmental Education Research, 9(1), 21–33.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620303468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moradhaseli, S., Ataei, P., & Norouzi, A. (2017). Analysis of students’ environmental behavior of Agriculture College of Tarbiat Modares University, Iran (Application of Planned Behavior Theory). Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 27(7), 733–742.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2017.1334614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nolan, J. M. (2010). “An inconvenient truth” increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases. Environment and Behavior, 42(5), 643–658.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916509357696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oğuz, D., Çakci, I., & Kavas, S. (2010). Environmental Awareness of University students in Ankara, Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(19), 2629–2636.Google Scholar
  43. Pothitou, M., Varga, L., Kolios, A. J., & Gu, S. (2015). Linking energy behaviour, attitude and habits with environmental predisposition and knowledge. International Journal of Sustainable Energy.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786451.2015.1032290.Google Scholar
  44. Rakotomamonjy, S. N., Jones, J. P. G., Razafimanahaka, J. H., Ramamonjisoa, B., & Williams, S. J. (2015). The effects of environmental education on children’s and parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards lemurs in rural Madagascar. Animal Conservation, 18(2), 157–166.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rashidy, A., & Rashidy, M. (2011). The role of media in environmental protection and Anne effect on people’s behavior and managers from the perspective of the development of consumer culture. Cultural Engineering, 5(55), 31–33.Google Scholar
  46. Ravanbakhsh Sangjoei, M. (2013). Iran situation in environmental sustainable development. Environment and Development Journal, 4(7), 73–82.Google Scholar
  47. Reyes, J. A. L. (2016). Exploring relationships of environmental attitudes, behaviors, and sociodemographic indicators to aspects of discourses: Analyses of International Social Survey Programme data in the Philippines. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 18(6), 1575–1599.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-015-9704-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salehi, S. (2010). People and the environment: A study of environmental attitudes and behavior in Iran. Dordrecht: Lambert Academic Publisher.Google Scholar
  49. Sammalisto, K., & Brorson, T. (2008). Training and communication in the implementation of environmental management systems (ISO 14001): A case study at the University of Gävle, Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(3), 299–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sánchez, M., López-Mosquera, N., & Lera-López, F. (2016). Improving pro-environmental behaviours in Spain. The role of attitudes and socio-demographic and political factors. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 18(1), 47–66.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2015.1046983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., & Adenso-Diaz, B. (2010). Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: The mediating effect of training. Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2009.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sellmann, D., & Bogner, F. X. (2013). Effects of a 1-day environmental education intervention on environmental attitudes and connectedness with nature. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 1077–1086.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0155-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sotoudeh, A., & Porasghr Sangachin, F. (2010). Investigate reports of sustainability indicators and the performance and position of Iran in the years 2005–2008. Journal of Environment and Development, 1, 51–75.Google Scholar
  54. Sutton, P. W. (2007). The environment: A sociological introduction. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  55. Tefera, T. L., Tegegne, A., & Hoekstra, D. (2012). Capacity for knowledge-based smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia: Linking graduate programs to market-oriented agricultural development: Challenges, opportunities and IPMS experience. Nairobi: ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD).Google Scholar
  56. Testa, F., Gusmerottia, N. M., Corsini, F., Passetti, E., & Iraldo, F. (2016). Factors affecting environmental management by small and micro firms: The importance of entrepreneurs’ attitudes and environmental investment. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 23(6), 373–385.  https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). (2010). Enhancing food security in Africa through science, technology and innovation. Technology and innovation report.Google Scholar
  58. Valaei, A. (2005). Behavioral patterns with nature (the environment) in the Quran and Sunnah. Tehran: Islamic Azad University.Google Scholar
  59. Varian, H. (2005). Bootstrap tutorial. Mathematica Journal, 9, 768–775.Google Scholar
  60. Yildiz, N. D., Yilmaz, H., Demir, M., & Toy, S. (2011). Effects of personal characteristics on environmental awareness; a questionnaire survey with university campus people in a developing country, Turkey. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(2), 332–340.Google Scholar
  61. Zahra, S. A., Sapienza, H. J., & Davidsson, P. (2006). Entrepreneurship and dynamic capabilities: A review, model and research agenda*. Journal of Management Studies, 43(4), 917–955.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00616.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pouria Ataei
    • 1
  • Vahid Aliabadi
    • 2
  • Arash Norouzi
    • 3
  • Hassan Sadighi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of AgricultureTarbiat Modares University (TMU)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  3. 3.Department of Industrial Design, College of Fine ArtsUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations