Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 1085–1102 | Cite as

Movement towards a low carbon emitted environment: a test of some factors in Malaysia

  • Abubakar Hamid Danlami
  • Shri-Dewi Applanaidu
  • Rabiul Islam


There exists a high global concern in different nations on environmental sustainability especially at the focal stage of increased economic growth and development process due to high level of environmental degradation and pollution. The major aim of this study was to empirically examine how to minimise carbon emissions (CO2) in Malaysia which are mainly caused by energy production, fossil fuel consumption, population density and economic growth. The study adopted the method of autoregressive distributed lag bound testing approach to analyse the data for the period 1971–2011. The study found that economic growth in Malaysia has a direct relationship with CO2 emissions in both the short run and the long run. Similarly, there is a positive relationship between fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions over the same period. Population density was found to have positive impacts on CO2 emissions. Contrarily, the relationship between the activities of energy production and pollution is negative in the long run. The study recommends that a targeted GDP growth rate should be set with the consideration to avoid more environmental pollution. In addition, the positive impact of fossil fuel consumption on the environmental pollution implies that there is a need to make and implement policies that will encourage the use of public transportation system more than private transportations. That is, the unnecessary use of private vehicles should be discouraged in order to reduce the extent of fossil fuel consumption.


CO2 emissions Economic growth Fossil fuel consumption 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abubakar Hamid Danlami
    • 1
  • Shri-Dewi Applanaidu
    • 1
  • Rabiul Islam
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Economics, Finance and Banking (SEFB), College of Business (COB)Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)SintokMalaysia
  2. 2.School of International Studies (SOIS), College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS)Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)SintokMalaysia

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