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Promoting e-mobility in India: challenges, framework, and future roadmap

Abstract

The purpose of the research is to identify the critical challenges that are impeding the adoption of e-mobility in India. It also aims to give a roadmap how to address these challenges while taking into considerations concerns of all the relevant stakeholders. Based on an in-depth literature review, an exploratory research design is employed to delve deep into various aspects of e-mobility. This is followed by a three-phase Delphi technique to identify and rate the e-mobility challenges in the Indian context. The study successfully identifies four different categories of challenges and proposes integrative framework for e-mobility. Further, the research goes on to lay out the future roadmap for mass adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in India. The research is novel in terms of presenting a holistic viewpoint on e-mobility in India. Its originality lies in identifying the major inhibitors obstructing EVs adoption in India and then suggesting the roadmap how to overcome these impediments for mass adoption of e-mobility.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Source Based upon Bruce et al. (2012, p. 21)

Fig. 3

Source Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, Automotive Mission Plan 2006–2016

Fig. 4

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Correspondence to Kumar Shalender.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Identification of challenges and roadmap for promoting e-mobility in India

Questionnaire: phase I

Dear Sir,

The aim of the study is to identify the critical challenges that need to be addressed in order to promote e-mobility in India. This first phase of survey requires you to identify the issues which are impeding the growth prospects of e-mobility in India. Table 10 shows some of the examples for your reference.

Table 10 Examples of challenges/issues

Please fill your answers in the space provided in Table 11. You are free to add more rows in case you identify more than 10 challenges.

Table 11 Challenges/issues

Thank you for the time taken to be part of this research. We will notify you in advance for the second round of study and look forward to your support for successful completion of this research.

Appendix 2: Identification of challenges and roadmap for promoting e-mobility in India

Questionnaire: phase II

Dear Sir,

The aim of the study is to identify the critical challenges that need to be addressed in order to promote e-mobility in India. Objective of phase II of the study is to reach a consensus about the challenges/issues identified in phase I of the survey administration. As given in the table below, there are three options to choose from—accept, modify, or reject. If the option of modify is chosen, you are requested to write desired modification in the given space.

S. no. Building consensus on e-mobility challenges/issues Result of survey  
1 Challenge/Issue: Short battery lifetime
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
2 Challenge/Issue: Long charging period
Comment
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
3 Challenge/Issue: Complex drivetrain system
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
4 Challenge/issue: Heavy weight of battery
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
5 Challenge/issue: High retail cost
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
6 Challenge/issue: Safety issues
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
7 Challenge/issue: Charging issues
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
8 Challenge/issue: Compromised comfort/convenience
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
9 Challenge/issue: Low resale value
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
10 Challenge/issue: Fear of getting stuck midway
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
11 Challenge/issue: Ambiguous incentive system
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
12 Challenge/issue: Evolving laws
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
13 Challenge/issue: Non-existent charging infrastructure
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
14 Challenge/issue: Lack of industry–government coordination
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
15 Challenge/issue: Unclear e-mobility policy
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
16 Challenge/issue: Lack of standards and regulatory framework
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
17 Challenge/issue: Small e-vehicle demand
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
18 Challenge/issue: Absence of e-vehicle production line
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
19 Challenge/issue: Lack of allied players/systems/processes
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
20 Challenge/issue: Unclear future growth scenario
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
21 Challenge/issue: High research and development (R&D) cost
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
22 Challenge/issue: Non-existent road-side assistance
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
23 Challenge/issue: Unclear legislative framework
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
24 Challenge/issue: Ambiguous vehicle classification parameters
Comment:
Accept
Modify
Reject
 
  1. Thank you for the time taken to be part of this research. We will notify you in advance for the phase III of study and look forward to your support for successful completion of this research

Appendix 3: Identification of challenges and roadmap for promoting e-mobility in India

Questionnaire: phase III

Dear Sir,

The aim of the study is to identify the critical challenges that need to be addressed in order to promote e-mobility in India. In this third and final phase of survey administration, you are requested to rate the challenges—identified and agreed in previous two phases of the study—according to their critical importance. For rating purpose, use the five-point Likert scale with responses anchored between very important (5), important (4), moderately important (3), little important (2), and unimportant (1).

S. no. Challenges/issues 1 2 3 4 5
Technical challenges
1 Short battery lifetime      
2 Long charging period      
3 Complex drivetrain system      
4 Heavy weight of battery      
Customer challenges
1 High retail cost      
2 Poor safety perception      
3 Rising charging cost      
4 Compromised comfort/convenience      
5 Low resale value      
6 Range anxiety      
Policy challenges
1 Ambiguous incentive system      
2 Unpredictable technology evolution      
3 Non-existent charging infrastructure      
4 Poor government–industry interface      
5 Unclear e-mobility policy      
6 Lack of standards and regulatory framework      
Industry Challenges
1 Small e-vehicle demand      
2 Non-integrated production facility      
3 Non-existing e-mobility ecosystem      
4 Unclear growth scenario      
5 High R&D cost      

Thank you for the time taken to be part of this research. We greatly acknowledge your contribution in completing our research on e-mobility.

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Shalender, K., Yadav, R.K. Promoting e-mobility in India: challenges, framework, and future roadmap. Environ Dev Sustain 20, 2587–2607 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0006-x

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Keywords

  • Automobile
  • Electric vehicles (EVs)
  • e-mobility
  • Environment
  • Government
  • Policy
  • Strategy
  • Sustainability