Urban development, environmental vulnerability and CRZ violations in India: impacts on fishing communities and sustainability implications in Mumbai coast
- 851 Downloads
Coastal Regulations in India are traced back to the UN Conference on Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972. The Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1986 was enacted to implement India’s commitments as a signatory. The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 was made under the provisions of the EPA in order to protect coastal environments and social and livelihood security of fishing community. This paper assesses the effects of CRZ rules and violations in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, which has experienced tremendous growth due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization. This process has led to the destruction of mangroves and other important species of fish which play a crucial role in sustaining the coastal ecology and urban biodiversity; high population density and uneven growth have exacerbated adverse environmental and socioeconomic consequences. The Koli (fishing community) in this region faces huge problems of survival and sustenance in small-scale fishing, due to the rampant commercial fishing by big trawlers and large-scale dumping of waste materials by the industries surrounding the vicinity into the sea. In small but significant ways, the fishing communities through their traditional commons-based resource management and livelihood systems protect the coastal ecology and help the cities in reducing their carbon footprints. On the basis of primary field research in Thane–Mulund Creek Bhandup, Chimbai, and Sewri, this paper attempts to assess CRZ violations taking place on coastal areas and is causing damage to the coastal ecology. The research specifically has focused on the particular fishing-related activities and spaces—such as: jetties, parking of boats, access to sea, weaving and drying of nets, landing grounds, drying and cleaning of fish that are more affected by encroachment of seashore area and by CRZ rules violations. It evaluates the actions taken by Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority and Bombay Municipal Corporation while implementing rules and making Integrated Coastal Zone Management plan for management of marine environment. It raises broader issues relating to the contradictions and complementarities involved in ICZM plans vis-a-vis management of biodiversity, within a larger context of rapid urbanization and demands for real estate growth. The paper argues that urban biodiversity management requires clear valuation of the long-term ecological and socioeconomic benefits of sustenance of coastal ecology and related livelihoods.
KeywordsUrban development Environmental vulnerability CRZ violations Sustainability
- Baviskar, A. (2005). Red in tooth and claw? Looking for class in struggles over nature in social movements in India. In R. Ray & M. F. Katzenstein (Eds.), Poverty, power and politics (pp. 161–179). New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
- Chouhan, H. A., & Parthasarathy, D. (2015). Urban development, environmental vulnerability and CRZ violations: Issues and challenges for fishing community in Mumbai (pp. 9–22). Saarbrucken: Scholars Press.Google Scholar
- Chouhan, H. A., Parthasarathy, D., & Pattanaik, S. (2015). Evidence based management of coastal zone and CRZ violations in Mumbai: Urgency of integrated coastal zone management plan (ICZMP) in Maharashtra (pp. 546–551). New Delhi: Excellent Publishing House.Google Scholar
- DNA Daily News and Analysis. (2011). Kolis in Mumbai find new CRZ norms a fishy proposition. 8 January. http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_kolis-in-mumbai-find-new-crz-norms-a-fishy-proposition_1495061. Accessed 9 Jan 2011.
- EQUATION. (2008). Coastal regulation in India, Why do we need a new notification? (pp. 59–62). Bangalore: EQUATIONS.Google Scholar
- Guha, R. (1989). The unquiet woods. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Guha, R., & Gadgil, M. (1995). Ecology and equity. New Delhi: Delhi Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- IGIDR. (2006). State of environment: Maharashtra. Mumbai: Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF). (2009). Final frontier: Agenda to protect the ecosystem and habitat of India’s coast for conservation and livelihood security. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India.Google Scholar
- Parthasarathy, D. (2011). Hunters, gatherers and foragers in a metropolis: Communizing the private and public in Mumbai. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI(50), 54–63.Google Scholar
- Patil, R. (2001). Coastal zone conflicts in Maharashtra. In International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) International Ocean Institute (IOI), India (pp 156–157).Google Scholar
- Ranade, S. (2008). The Kolis of Mumbai at crossroads: Religion, business and urbanization in cosmopolitan Bombay today. In Paper Presented at the 17th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia, Melbourne, 1–3 July.Google Scholar
- Sharma, C. (2011). CRZ Notification 2011: Not the end of the road. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI(7), 31–35.Google Scholar
- Singh, V. V., & Somvansi, V. S. (Eds.). (2004). Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)—A viable approach for sustainable resource utilization from Large Marine Ecosystem of Mumbai (pp. 494–496). Mumbai: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Sridhar, A. (2005). Statement on the CRZ Notification and post-tsunami rehabilitation in Tamil Nadu (pp. 27–30). New Delhi: UNDP.Google Scholar
- Times of India. (2011). New coastal regulation zone 2011. 16 January. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/coastal-regulation-zone. Accessed 17 Jan 2011.
- Vijay, V., Biradar R. S., Inamdar, A. B., Deshmukhe, G., Baji, S. & Pikle, M. (Eds.). (2005). Mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai (Bombay) using remotely sensed data. Indian Journal of Marine sciences, 34, 310–315.Google Scholar
- Vivekanandan, V. (2007). Changing climate of the livelihood and rights of fishermen on the coast. In Presentation made at the workshop on ‘Combating Coastal Challenges (pp 7–8). Organized by Citizen Consumer and Civic Action Group (CAG), Chennai.Google Scholar
- Wani, M., & Taraporvala, P. (2012). CoP-11 on biodiversity: An opportunity to go beyond business as usual. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII(38), 10.Google Scholar