Clean energy and water: assessment of Mexico for improved water services and renewable energy
Vast natural resources and strained water supplies make Mexico a valuable geographic setting for studying the energy-water nexus. While Mexico has historically been a major oil producing country, it struggles with water stress, as much of its land area is experiencing or approaching physical water scarcity. Solving many of Mexico’s water issues will require energy for extracting, transporting, and treating water where it is needed most. Yet such energy use is not always possible since many people are not connected to an electricity grid or other decentralized energy infrastructure. In addition, a continuation of the almost decade-long trend of declining oil production and exports might reduce revenues and available energy to fund and operate new water systems. Consequently, there is an opportunity to improve water services through use of distributed renewable energy technologies that do not directly require fossil resources or large-scale infrastructure. Various policies and technologies are relevant to the energy-water nexus on a decentralized scale, which are covered in this manuscript. We use an integrated technology policy framework to assess the efficacy of integrating renewable energy and water systems in Mexico via case studies of technologies affecting energy-water policy objectives and choices. Particularly, important factors for technology development include consideration of performance parameters, cultural acceptance, willingness to pay, and financing.
KeywordsDistributed technologies Energy Mexico Policy Renewable energy Water Energy-water nexus
The authors would like to thank the International Development Research Centre for support that enabled this assessment.
- BMZ. (2011). Support for the programme to promote solar water heating in Mexico (PROCALSOL) http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/27813.htm. Accessed 9 Sept 2011.
- Cancino-Solorzano, Y., Villicana-Ortiz, E., Gutierrez-Trashorras, A. J., & Xiberta-Bernat, J. (2010). Electricity sector in Mexico: Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1), 454–461. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheeseman, G.-M. (2012). Mexico is rapidly increasing wind power installations. http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/05/mexico-rapidly-increasing-installed-wind-power/. Accessed 17 May 2012.
- CIA. (2011). The world factbook. North America: Mexico: Central Intelligence Agency.Google Scholar
- Earthscan and IWMI. (2007). Water for food, water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. London, Colombo: Earthscan, International Water Management Institute.Google Scholar
- EIA. (2010a). International energy statistics. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed 28 Apr 2010.
- EIA. (2010b). Mexico energy data, statistics and analysis—Oil, gas, electricity, Coal. Washington DC: Country Analysis Briefs.Google Scholar
- EIA. (2012). Mexico: Country analysis brief. Washington, D.C.: The US Energy Information Administration.Google Scholar
- Espinosa, I. E. C. (2002). Water management in the state of Mexico and in the Mexico Valley. In G. Dubois-Taine (Ed.), Sustainable Urban Services, Santiago de Chile Seminar, Santiago, Chile, July 11–12 2002 (pp. 121–132).Google Scholar
- Figueres, C., Tortajada, C., & Rockstrom, J. (Eds.). (2003). Rethinking water management: Innovative approaches to contemporary issues. London: Earthscan Ltd.Google Scholar
- Haggarty, L., Brook, P., & Zuluaga, M. (2001). Thirst for Reform? Private sector participation in providing Mexico City’s water supply. Policy research working paper 2654: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Ibarguengoitia, J. A. C. (2010). Institutional innovation in water management: The case of Mexico City’s recharge wells. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- IPCC. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation (A special report of working groups I and II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change). Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- IslaUrbana. (Ed.). (2011). Isla Urbana Press Kit. México DF: IslaUrbana. http://www.islaurbana.org/. Accessed December 2011.
- King, C. W., Stillwell, A. S., Twomey, K. M., & Webber, M. E. (2013). Coherence between water and energy policies. Natural Resources Journal, 53(1) (in press).Google Scholar
- Kulichenko, N., & Wirth, J. (2012). Concentrating solar power in developing countries: Regulatory and financial incentives for scaling up. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Mendoza-Espinosa, L., Orozco-Borbón, M., & Silva-Nava, P. (2004). Quality assessment of reclaimed water for its possible use for crop irrigation and aquifer recharge in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Water Science and Technology, 50(2), 285–291.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2006). Agricultural and fisheries policies in Mexico: Recent achievements, continuing the reform agenda. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
- OECD/IEA. (2011). Beyond the OECD—Saudi Arabia http://www.iea.org/country/n_country.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=SA. Accessed 9 Sept 2011.
- PLEIADeS. (2011). PLEIADeS Factsheet Sonora (Mexico). http://www.pleiades.es/index.php?option=com_jdownloads&task=summary&cid=31&catid=13.
- Retamal, M., Glassmire, J., Abeysuriya, K., Turner, A., & White, S. (2009). The water-energy nexus: Investigation into the energy implications of household rainwater systems. Sydney: Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney; CSIRO.Google Scholar
- Shah, T., Scott, C., & Buechler, S. (2004). Water sector reforms in Mexico: Lessons for India’s new water policy. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(4), 361–370.Google Scholar
- Skees, J. R., & Leiva, A. J. (2005). Analysis of risk instruments in an irrigation sub-sector in Mexico. Submitted to the Inter-American Development Bank Technical Cooperation Program IDB-Netherlands Water Partnership Program (INWAP). Lexington, KY: GlobalAgRisk.Google Scholar
- Spencer, J., Johnston, C., & Harper, D. (2008). Identification and evaluation of resource recovery opportunities. Victoria, BC, Canada: Capital Regional District, Core Area Wastewater Management Program.Google Scholar
- Trieb, F., Schillings, C., O’Sullivan, M., Pregger, T., & Hoyer-Klick, C. (2009). Global potential of concentrating solar power. In SolarPaces Conference, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC. (2011). Current CDM pipeline projects. http://cdm.unfccc.int/Statistics/index.html. Accessed 6 Apr 2011.