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Environmentally extended social accounting matrix for Chile


This study uses information from the input–output tables 2008, national accounts, household survey, and environmental pollutant emissions to elaborate an environmentally extended social accounting matrix for Chile. A linear multisector model is then generated in order to determine the effects that a sectoral shock on demand would have on economic development. The results show the typical economic trade-offs, concluding that it is necessary to consider economic relationships in order to assess the full impact of a sector on economic activity, income distribution, and pollution. The sectors commerce, construction, and food industry strongly increase economic growth and employment and decrease inequality. Nonetheless, when also considering the environmental effects, no sectors can be identified that contribute systematically and significantly to all the areas of economic development.

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  1. 1.

    The following disaggregation was used in the CASEN 2009: Unskilled: no formal, incomplete basic, or complete basic education. Semi-skilled: incomplete high school, incomplete technical-professional high school, complete high school, or complete technical high school education. Skilled: incomplete technical or university or complete technical or university education. The same disaggregation was used for the other subsectors.

  2. 2.

    Given the lack of information for 2008.

  3. 3.

    The symbol \( ^{\prime } \) denotes matrix transposition.

  4. 4.

    Thus, the total effects on the environmental accounts are greater than those estimated with an Input–Output model.

  5. 5.

    The technical coefficient of the capture of resources is not used in this paper due to the lack of data for Chile.

  6. 6.

    The results are exemplified using an increment in the demand of 1,000 million pesos of production; the same methodology is used for a decline of the demand in 1,000 million pesos of production.

  7. 7.

    This value includes an increment of 1,000 million pesos due to the increase in the final demand of the aquaculture industry sector.

  8. 8.

    The number of jobs per activity was obtained from the CASEN 2009. In the case of public and private health and education, we use the sectoral participation in the GDP to disaggregate the values in public and private.


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The authors are grateful to the National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (Fondecyt) (initiation project no. 11110007) for the finance it provided for this research.

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Correspondence to Cristian Mardones.



See Tables 10, 11.

Table 10 Nomenclature of macro SAM accounts
Table 11 Representation of macro SAM for Chile (million Chilean $) [Part 1 of 2]

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Gallardo, A., Mardones, C. Environmentally extended social accounting matrix for Chile. Environ Dev Sustain 15, 1099–1127 (2013).

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  • Social accounting matrix
  • Environment
  • Economic development

JEL Classification

  • C67
  • Q56
  • R58