Causal relationships between African mahoganies exports and deforestation in Ghana: policy implications
- 304 Downloads
When exploiting forest resources, the resource use must be sustainable if its use is to support its function in the natural ecosystem. The African mahogany, a prized timber species, is widely exploited, raising policy concerns about the management of forest resources to meet the social, economic, and ecological needs of present and future generations. This paper explores, for the purpose of policy implication, the relationship between the exportation and deforestation of African mahoganies. The analysis employed a Granger causality test within the error correction model to evaluate the direction of causality between African mahoganies exports and deforestation in Ghana. The results suggested that in the short run, there was significant (P < 0.01) unidirectional causality from African mahoganies exports to deforestation. However, there was no directional causality from deforestation to mahogany exports. Thus, mahogany extraction and logging in general are among the major factors contributing to deforestation in Ghana. The general assessment of historical trends in the extraction levels of the two main genera of African mahoganies revealed that Entandrophragma cylindricum and Khaya ivorensis have been the most exploited species over the years. Improvements in, and the enforcement of, existing forest institutions and incentives, as well as related policies, could minimise the rate of deforestation not only of the African mahogany but also in timber logging, thus stemming forest degradation and deforestation in the country.
KeywordsGranger causality Pervasive policies Mahogany logging
- Agyarko, T. (2001). Forest outlook study for Africa (FOSA) country report-Ghana: FOSA Working Paper FOSA/WP/12.Google Scholar
- Bennett, M. J. (1999). The inter-relationships of commercial logging hunting and wildlife in Sarawak. In R. Fimbrel, A. Grajal, & J. Robinson (Eds.), Conserving wildlife in managed tropical forests. New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
- Bishop, R. V. (1979). The construction and use of causality test. Agricultural Economics Research, 31, 1–6.Google Scholar
- Boni, S. (2006). Ghanaian farmers’ lukewarm reforestation: Environmental degradation, the timber option and ambiguous legislation. http://www.mpl.ird.Fr/colloque_foncier/Communications/PDF/Boni.pdf.
- Danquah, J. A., Appiah, M., Damnyag, L., & Pappinen, A. (2011). Population structure of African Mahoganies in four forest reserves: Implications for conservation and management in Ghana. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 1(7), 539–554.Google Scholar
- Darrat, A. F., Aboseda, S. S., & Aly, H. Y. (2005). Assessing the role of financial deepening in business cycles: The experience of the United Arab Emirates. Applied Financial Economics, 15(7), 1–16.Google Scholar
- Domson, O., & Vlosky, R. P. (2007). A strategic overview of the forest sector in Ghana. Louisiana Forest Product Development Center, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agriculture Center, Baton Rouge (pp. 1–17).Google Scholar
- Ehui, S. K., & Hertel, J.W. (1989). Deforestation and agricultural productivity in the Cöte d’Ivoire. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71(3), 703–711.Google Scholar
- FAO (2002). Hardwood plantations in Ghana by F. Odoom. Forest plantations working paper 24. Forest Resource Development Service, Forest Resources Division, FAO, Rome (unpublished).Google Scholar
- FAO. (2010). Global forest resources assessment 2010 country report Ghana. Forestry Department, Rome, FRA2010/077. www.fao.org/forestry/fra. Download on 8th February 2011.
- Fuller, W. (1976). Introduction to statistical time series. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Glastra, R. (1999). Illegal logging and timber in the tropics. Ghana a history of mismanagement. International Development Centre. http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-9319-201-DO_TOPIC.html. Accessed 7 March 2011.
- Hall, J. B. (1987). Conservation of forest in Ghana. Universitas, 8, 33–42.Google Scholar
- Hansen-Kuhn, K. (1993). Sapping the economy: Structural adjustment in Costa Rica. The Ecologist, 23(5), 179–184.Google Scholar
- Hawthorne, W. D. (1998). Entandrophragma cylindricum. In IUCN 2010, IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2010.4. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 15 July, 2011.
- Hawthorne, W. D., & Abu-Juam, M. (1995). Forest protection in Ghana: With particular reference to vegetation and plant species. IUCN, Forest Conservation Programme; United Kingdom, Overseas Development Administration; Ghana, Forestry Department.Google Scholar
- Houghton, R. A. (2005). Tropical deforestation as a source of Greenhouse gas emission. In P. Mouinho, S. Schwartzman (eds.). Tropical deforestation and climate change (p. 13). Amazon Institute for Environmental Research, Brazil and Environmental Defense, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Huq, M. M. (1989). The economy of Ghana. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
- IHS Inc. (2011). EViews, Irvine, CA, USA.Google Scholar
- Irvine, F. R. (1961). Woody plants of Ghana with special reference to their uses (pp. 512–534). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- IUCN. (2006). Strengthening voices for better choices. www.IUCN.org/forest.
- Kerr, S., Pfaff, A. S. P., & Sanchez, A. (2002). The dynamics of deforestation: Evidence from Costa Rica. Motu Economic and Public Policy Research. www.motu.Org.nz/files/docs/MEL0270.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2012.
- Kerr, S., Pfaff, A. S. P., & Sanchez, P. (2003). Development and deforestation: Evidence from Costa Rica. Journal of Environment Economics and Management, 7(31), 1–30.Google Scholar
- Mittelman, A. (2001). Secondary forests in the lower Mekong subregion: An overview of their extent, roles and importance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 13, 671–690.Google Scholar
- Owusu, J. H. (2008). New trends in Ghana’s International timber: Trade some implications for local livelihoods and sustainable forest management. Workshop on Forest Governance and Decentralization in Africa 8–11April 2008, Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
- Parren, M. P. E., & de Graaf, N. R. (1995). The quest for natural forest management in Ghana, Cote d’lvoire and Liberia. Tropenbos series 13, p. 37.Google Scholar
- Putz, F. E. (1991). Silvicultural effects of lianas. In F. E. Putz & H. A. Mooney (Eds.), The biology of vines (pp. 493–501). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Reed, D. (1992). Structural adjustment and the environment. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Schartzman, S., & Kingston, M. (1997). Global deforestation timber and the struggle for sustainability. Making the label stick. Washington, DC: The Environmental Defense Fund.Google Scholar
- Stone, S. W. (1998). Economic trends in the timber industry in Amazonia: Surveys results from Para state, 1990–1995. Journal of Devastated Areas, 32(1), 97–121.Google Scholar
- Tamakloe, W. (2000). State of Ghana’s environment—Challenges of compliance and enforcement Ghana. Environmental Protection Agency. www.oceandocs.Org/handle/1834/409. Accessed 30 May 2012.
- Taylor, M. E. (1960). Synecology and silviculture in Ghana (p. 418). Accra, Ghana, Legon University; Edinburgh, UK, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (1989). Sub-Saharan African: From Crisis to sustainable growth. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar