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Environmental movement in the Arab world


The paper conducts a comparative study across the Arab world in the Middle East and Africa to determine whether variations exist in environmental performance. Using various indicators of performance, including the 2010 environmental performance index and the total number of international environmental agreements signed, ratified, or accessed by individual governments, the paper concludes that the Arab world is at par with the developing world with its environmental performance. The paper empirically shows that economic well-being determines environmental performance, thus providing evidence to support the EKC-type hypothesis.

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  1. 1.

    The Arab World is defined by the membership in the League of Arab States. There are 22 member countries in the League.

  2. 2.

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates make up the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (the GCC countries).

  3. 3.

    Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia.

  4. 4.

    Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia and Sudan.


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Environment Ministries websites

  1. Algeria:

  2. Bahrain:

  3. Egypt:

  4. Iraq:

  5. Jordan:

  6. Kuwait:

  7. Lebanon:

  8. Libya:

  9. Libya:

  10. Mauritania:

  11. Mauritania:

  12. Morocco:

  13. Palestine:

  14. Qatar:

  15. Saudi Arabia:

  16. Sudan:

  17. Syria:

  18. United Arab Emirates:

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Correspondence to Salpie Djoundourian.

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Djoundourian, S. Environmental movement in the Arab world. Environ Dev Sustain 13, 743–758 (2011).

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  • Arab world
  • Environmental performance
  • Environmental Kuznets curve
  • International environmental agreements