The paper reviews and assesses the evolution of the environmental movement in both the public and the private sector in Lebanon. It studies the public sector involvement in the environmental movement by reviewing the commitments made by the government to the local, regional and international communities. The paper presents a summary of all the decisions, decrees, and laws pertaining to environmental protection that the Lebanese government has instituted over time, as well as all the conventions and agreements that the country has ratified and/or signed. Compared to the Arab world in the Middle East and North Africa, Lebanon is relatively more active and integrated in the world community. Using the total number of established environmental organizations and the level of reported activities aimed at spreading environmental awareness and educating people as indicators of private sector involvement in the environmental movement, the paper concludes that the post war era is characterized by a significant increase in the number of established organizations. It also concludes that there is a co-movement between economic and environmental variables.
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Environmental Non Governmental Organizations
Non Governmental Organizations
Middle East and North Africa
Gross domestic product
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The author acknowledges the support of University Research Council at the Lebanese American University.
Readers should send their comments on this paper to: BhaskarNath@aol.com within 3 months of publication of this issue.
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Djoundourian, S. Environmental movement in Lebanon. Environ Dev Sustain 11, 427–438 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-007-9122-3
- Arab world
- Developing country
- Environmental movement
- Environmental Non Profit Organizations (ENGOs)
- International conventions
- Middle East and North Africa
- Regional conventions