Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat

Abstract

Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems facing human society. Humans obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories) from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and other aquatic ecosystems. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization reports that more than 3.7 billion people are malnourished in the world. Overall soil is being lost from land areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil renewal imperiling future human food security and environmental quality.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Agriculture California: 2002, Control of Soil Erosion, <http://res2.agr.ca/ecorc/program3/pub/status/control.htm> (10/8/2002)

  2. Agriculture Canada: 2002, Range Management, <http://www/agr.gc.ca/pfra/land/range.htm.> (10/8/2002)

  3. W. Allen (1994) The Flood of 1993 May Rank as the Worst Weather Disaster in U.S. History St. Louis Post Dispatch St. Louis, MO 01B

    Google Scholar 

  4. F.E. Allison (1973) Soil Organic Matter and Its Role in Crop Production Elsevier New York

    Google Scholar 

  5. J.M. Anderson (1988) ArticleTitleSpatiotemporal effects of invertebrates on soil processes Biological Fertility Soils 6 216–227 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXhsVSmtbk%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. O. Atlavinyte (1965) ArticleTitle‘The effect of erosion on the population of earthworms (Lumbricidae) in soils under different crops’ Pedobiologia 5 178–188

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bailey, A.W.: 1996, Managing Canadian Rangelands as a Sustainable Resource: Policy Issues, Rangelands in a Sustainable Biosphere, Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 23–28 July, 1995, Volume 2: Invited Presentations, pp. 5–7

  8. R.M. Bajracharya R. Lal (1992) ArticleTitle‘Seasonal soil loss and erodibility variation on a Miamian silt loam soil’ Soil Science Society of America Journal 56 IssueID5 1560–1565

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bohac, J. and Pokarzhevsky, A.: 1987, ‘Effect of manure and NPK on soil macrofauna in chernozem soil’, in J. Szegi (eds.), Soil Biology and Conservation of Biosphere, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium, Budapest, Hungary, Akademiai Kiado, pp. 15–19

  10. L.R. Brown (1997) The Agricultural Link: How Environmental Deterioration Could Disrupt Economic Progress Worldwatch Institute Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  11. L.A. Bruijnzeel (1990) Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forests and Effects of Conversion: A State of Knowledge Review Free University and UNESCO Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  12. P. Buringh (1989) ‘Availability of agricultural land for crop and livestock production’ D. Pimentel C.W. Hall (Eds) Food and Natural Resources Academic Press Inc San Diego 70–85

    Google Scholar 

  13. L.C. Campbell (1998) ArticleTitleManaging soil fertility decline Journal of Crop Production 1 IssueID2 29–52 Occurrence Handle10.1300/J144v01n02_03

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Carnell, B.: 2001, Soil Erosion, <http://www.overpopulation.com/fag/natural_resources/food/soil_erosion> (12/17/ 2002).

  15. E.H. Clark (1987) Soil erosion: Offsite environmental effects J.M. Harlin G.M. Bernardi (Eds) Soil Loss: Processes, Policies, and Prospects Westview New York 59–89

    Google Scholar 

  16. G. Daily (1996) Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems Island Press Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  17. R.H. Donahue R.H. Follett R.N. Tulloch (1990) Our Soils and Their Management Interstate Pub. Inc Danville, IL

    Google Scholar 

  18. H.E. Dregne (1992) ArticleTitleErosion and soil productivity in Asia Journal of Soil Water Conservation 47 8–13

    Google Scholar 

  19. Ebbert, J.C. and Roe, R.D.: 1998, Soil Erosion in the Palouse River Basin: Indications of Improvement. Science for a Changing World, US Geological Survey, USGS Fact Sheet FS-069–98

  20. Ecology: 2002, Biodiversity, Productivity, and Overyielding, <http://web.utk.edu/~cuixu/School/ecology_ debate/biodiversity. htm.> (12/17/2002)

  21. Ecology Action: 2002, Soil, < http://www.growbilointensive.org/biointensive/soil.html.> (2/17/2002)

  22. C.A. Edwards J.E. Bater (1992) ArticleTitleThe use of earthworms in environmental management Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24 1683–1689

    Google Scholar 

  23. C.S. Elton (1927) Animal Ecology Sidgwick and Jackson London

    Google Scholar 

  24. Evans, R., Cassel, D.K. and Sneed, R.E.: 1997, Soil, Water, and Crop Characteristic Important to Irrigation Scheduling, <http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452–1.html.> (12/17/2002)

  25. P. Faeth P. Crosson (1994) ArticleTitle‘Building the case for sustainable agriculture’ Environment 36 IssueID1 16–20

    Google Scholar 

  26. M. Falkenmark (1989) ‘Water scarcity and food production’ D. Pimentel C.W. Hall (Eds) Food and Natural Resources Academic Press San Diego, CA 164–191

    Google Scholar 

  27. FAO: 1961–2000, ‘Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics’. FAO Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics 1–13, 125 pp.

  28. FAO: 1998, Food Balance Sheet, http://armanncorn:98ivysub@faostat.fao.org/lim...ap.pl (10/12/2000).

  29. FAO: 2001, Soil, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, <http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/agll/soilbiod/casecall.htm.> (10/8/2002).

  30. FAO: 2002, Restoring the Land, <http://www.fao.org/inpho/vlibrary/u8480e/U8480E0d.htm.> (12/17/2002).

  31. FEMAT: 1993, Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team Report, Sponsored by the USDA Forest Service, US Environmental Protection Agency, USDOI Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Portland, Oregon.

  32. Follett, R.F., Gupta, S.C. and Hunt, P.G.: 1987, ‘Conservation practices: Relation to the management of plant nutrients for crop production’, in Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Critical Components of Production Systems, Special Pub. 19, Madison, WI, Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, pp. 19–51.

  33. Forest Conservation Act: 2002, Riparian Forest Buffer Panel (Bay Area Regulatory Programs), <http://www.riparianbuffers.umd.edu/manuals/regulatory. html+60%25+forest+soil+conservation > (7/29/2002).

  34. D.M. Gray A.T. Leiser (1989) Biotechnical Slope Protection and Erosion Control Kreiger Publishing Co. Malabar, FL

    Google Scholar 

  35. D.W. Griffin C.A. Kellogg E.A. Shinn (2001) ArticleTitle‘Dust in the wind: Long ange transport of dust in the atmosphere and its implications for global public and ecosystem health’ Global Change & Human Health 2 IssueID1 20–33

    Google Scholar 

  36. J.P. Gupta P. Raina (1996) ‘Wind erosion and its control in hot arid areas of Rajasthan’ B. Buerkert B.E. Allison M. Oppen ParticleVon (Eds) Wind Erosion in West Africa: The Problem and Its Control Margraf Verlag Berlin 209–218

    Google Scholar 

  37. M.J. Haigh J.S. Rawat S.K. Bartarya S.P. Rai (1995) ArticleTitleInteractions between forest and landslide activity along new highways in the Kumaun Himalaya Forest Ecology and Management 78 IssueID1–3 173–189

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hawkins, L.: 2002, Ants, <http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/homeschooling_science_fun/69922.> (12/17/2002).

  39. V.H. Heywood (1995) Global Biodiversity Assessment Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  40. Huszar P.C. and Piper S.L.: 1985, ‘Off-site costs of wind erosion in New Mexico’, in Off-Site Costs of Soil Erosion: The Proceedings of a Symposium, Washington, DC, The Conservation Foundation, pp. 143–166

  41. IECA: 1991, Erosion Control – A Global Perspective. Proceedings of Conference XXII, International Erosion Control Association, Steamboat Springs, CO

  42. IFPRI: 2002, Effective Strategies for Reducing Hunger, Poverty, and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopian Highlands, <http://www.ifpri.cgiar.org/media/ifi_results.htm.> (10/8/2002)

  43. P.W. Johnson (1995) Agriculture Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, Government Printing Office Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  44. A.J. Jones R. Lal D.R. Huggins (1997) ArticleTitle‘Soil erosion and productivity research: a regional approach’ American Journal of Alternative agriculture 12 IssueID4 183–192

    Google Scholar 

  45. H.W. Kendall D. Pimentel (1994) ArticleTitleConstraints on the expansion of the global food supply Ambio 23 198–205

    Google Scholar 

  46. Y. Kitazawa T. Kitazawa (1980) ‘Influence of application of a fungicide’, an insecticide, and compost upon soil biotic community D.L. Sindal (Eds) Soil Biology as Related to Land Use Practices Office of Pesticide and Toxic Substances, Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC 94–99

    Google Scholar 

  47. G.A. Klee (1991) Conservation of Natural Resources Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  48. Klocke, N.L., Hubbard, K.G., Kranz, W.L. and Watts, D.G.: 1996, Evapotranspiration (ET) or Crop Water Use, University of Nebraska, Cooperative Extension, <http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/irrigation/g992.htm.> (10/8/2002)

  49. R. Lal (1990) ‘Soil erosion and land degradation: The global risks’ R. Lal B.A. Stewart (Eds) Soil Degradation Springer-Verlag New York 129–172

    Google Scholar 

  50. R. Lal (1994) ArticleTitleWater management in various crop production systems related to soil tillage Soil and Tillage Research 30 169–185 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0167-1987(94)90004-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. R. Lal (2001) ArticleTitleWorld cropland soils as a source of sink for atmospheric carbon Advances in Agronomy 71 145–191

    Google Scholar 

  52. Lal, R.: 2002, One Answer for Cleaner Air, Water: Better Agricultural Practices, <http://www.acs.ohio-state.edu/units/research/archive/sequest.htm.> (12/17/2002).

  53. R. Lal (2004) ArticleTitleSoil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security Science 304 1623–1627 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXks1Cgsrk%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. R. Lal R.F. Follett J. Kimble C.V. Cole (1999) ArticleTitleManaging U.S. cropland to sequester carbon in soil Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54 IssueID1 374–381

    Google Scholar 

  55. R. Lal B.A. Stewart (1990) Soil Degradation Springer-Verlag New York

    Google Scholar 

  56. G.W. Langdale L.T. West R.R. Bruce W.P. Miller A.W. Thomas (1992) ArticleTitle‘Restoration of eroded soil with conservation tillage’ Soil Technology 5 81–90 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0933-3630(92)90009-P

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. P. Lavelle (1983) ArticleTitle‘The soil fauna of tropical savannas. II. The earthworms’ Ecosystems of the World 13 485–504

    Google Scholar 

  58. Lazaroff, C.: 2001, ‘Biodiversity gives carbon sinks a boost’, Environment News Service, April 13

  59. K.E. Lee (1985) Earthworms: Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use Academic Press Orlando, FL

    Google Scholar 

  60. E. Lee R.C. Foster (1991) ArticleTitle‘Soil fauna and soil structure’ Australian Journal of Soil Research 29 745–776 Occurrence Handle10.1071/SR9910745

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. B. Libert (1995) The Environmental Heritage of Soviet Agriculture CAB International Oxon, UK

    Google Scholar 

  62. B.G. Lockaby J.C. Adams (1985) ArticleTitle‘Pedoturbation of a forest soil by fire ants’ Journal of Soil Science Society of America 49 220–223

    Google Scholar 

  63. Martin, P.: 1997, Sediments and Erosion, <http://www.gov.mb.ca/environ/pages/publs97/cwgtext/sedi ment.html.> (10/8/2002)

  64. McLaughlin, L.: 1991, Soil Conservation Planning in the People’s Republic of China: An Alternative Approach, Dissertation, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University

  65. L. McLaughlin (1993) A case study in Dingxi County, Gansu Province, China D. Pimentel (Eds) World Soil Erosion and Conservation Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK 87–107

    Google Scholar 

  66. G. McTainish C. Boughton (1993) Land Degradation Processes in Australia Longman Cheshire Melbourne, AU

    Google Scholar 

  67. D.L. Mokma M.A. Sietz (1992) ArticleTitle‘Effects of soil erosion on corn yields on Marlette soils in South-Central Michigan’ Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 47 325–327

    Google Scholar 

  68. C.E. Murphee K.C. McGregor (1991) ArticleTitle‘Runoff and sediment yield from a flatland watershed in soybeans’ Transactions of ASAE 34 407–411

    Google Scholar 

  69. N. Myers (1993) Gaia: An Atlas of Planet Management Anchor/Doubleday Garden City, NY

    Google Scholar 

  70. InstitutionalAuthorNameNAS (2003) Frontiers in Agricultural Research: Food, Health, Environment and Communities National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, National Academies Press Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  71. E.P. Odum (1978) Fundamentals of Ecology Saunders New York

    Google Scholar 

  72. Olah-Zsupos, A. and Helmeczi, B.: 1987, ‘The effect of soil conditioners on soil microorganisms’, in J.␣Szegi (ed.), Soil Biology and Conservation of the Biosphere, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium, Budapest, Hungary, Akademiai Kiado, pp. 829–837

  73. Oldeman, L.R.: 1997, Soil Degradation: A Threat to Food Security? Paper presented at the International Conference on Time Ecology: Time for Soil Culture – Temporal Perspectives on Sustainable Use of Soil, 6–9 April, Tutzing, Germany

  74. K.R. Olson E. Nizeyimana (1988) ArticleTitle‘Effects of soil erosion on corn yields of seven Illinois soils’ Journal of Production Agriculture 1 13–19

    Google Scholar 

  75. Patric, J.H.: 2002, Forest Erosion Rates, <syllabus.syr.edu/esf/rdbriggs/for345/erosion.htm.> (12/17/ 2002)

  76. Phillips, D.L., White, D. and Johnson, B.: 1993, ‘Implications of climate change scenarios for soil erosion potential in the USA’, Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 61–72

  77. D. Pimentel (1993) World Soil Erosion and Conservation Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  78. D. Pimentel (1997) ArticleTitle‘Soil erosion’ Environment 39 IssueID10 4–5.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Pimentel, D.: 2001, ‘The limitations of biomass energy’, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, San Diego, Academic Press, pp. 159–171

  80. D. Pimentel A. Warneke (1989) ArticleTitle‘Ecological effects of manure’, sewage sludge, and other organic wastes on arthropod populations’ Agricultural Zoological Review 3 1–30

    Google Scholar 

  81. D. Pimentel N. Kounang (1998) ArticleTitleEcology of soil erosion in ecosystems Ecosystems 1 416–426 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s100219900035 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXptFentg%3D%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. D. Pimentel U. Stachow D.A. Takacs H.W. Brubaker A.R. Dumas J.J. Meaney J. O‘Neil D.E. Onsi D.B. Corzilius (1992) ArticleTitleConserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems’ BioScience 42 354–362

    Google Scholar 

  83. D. Pimentel C. Harvey P. Resosudarmo K. Sinclair D. Kurz M. McNair S. Crist L. Sphpritz L. Fitton R. Saffouri R. Blair (1995) ArticleTitle‘Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits’ Science 267 1117–1123 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXktVKjsL4%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. D. Pimentel J. Houser E. Preiss O. White H. Fang L. Mesnick T. Barsky S. Tariche J. Schreck S. Alpert (1997) ArticleTitle‘Water resources: Agriculture, the environment, and society’ BioScience 47 IssueID2 97–106

    Google Scholar 

  85. D. Pimentel B. Berger D. Filiberto M. Newton B. Wolfe B. Karabinakis S. Clarke E. Poon E. Abbett S. Nandagopal (2004) ArticleTitle‘Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues’ Bioscience 54 IssueID10 909–918

    Google Scholar 

  86. InstitutionalAuthorNamePRB (2002) World Population Data Sheet Population Reference Bureau Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  87. Reid, W.S.: 1985, ‘Regional effects of soil erosion on crop productivity–northeast’, in R.F. Follett and B.A. Stewart (eds.), Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity, Madison, WI, American Society of Agronomy, pp. 235–250

  88. J. Risser (1981) ArticleTitle‘A renewed threat of soil erosion: It’s worse than the Dust Bowl’ Smithsonian 11 120–122

    Google Scholar 

  89. Roose, E.: 1988, ‘Soil and water conservation lessons from steep-slope farming in French speaking countries of Africa’, in Conservation Farming on Steep Lands, Ankeny, IA, Soil and Water Conservation Society, pp. 130–131

  90. D.L. Schertz W.C. Moldenhauer S.J. Livingston G.A. Weesies E.A. Hintz (1989) ArticleTitle‘Effect of past soil erosion on crop productivity in Indiana’ Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44 IssueID6 604–608

    Google Scholar 

  91. SCS: 1993, Wind Erosion Report (Nov. 1992 – May 1993), Washington, DC, Soil Conservation Service, USDA

  92. M. Shachak C.G. Jones S. Brand (1995) ‘The role of animals in an arid ecosystem: Snails and isopods as controllers of soil formation’, erosion and desalinization H.P. Blume S.M. Berkowicz (Eds) Arid Ecosystems. Catena Verlag Cremlingen-Destedt, Germany 37–50

    Google Scholar 

  93. T.V. Singh J. Kaur (1989) Studies in Himalayan Ecology and Development Strategies Himalayan Books New Dehli

    Google Scholar 

  94. Solliday, L.: 1997, Sediment Transport of an Estuary, <http://bellnetweb.brc.tamus.edu/sediment.htm> (1/10/2003)

  95. D. Southgate M. Whitaker (1992) ArticleTitle‘Promoting resource degradation in Latin America: Tropical deforestation’, soil erosion, and coastal ecosystem disturbance in Ecuador Economic Development and Cultural Change 40 IssueID4 787–807 Occurrence Handle10.1086/451977

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Speth, J.G.: 1994, Towards an Effective and Operational International Convention on Desertification, New York, United Nations, International Convention on Desertification, Int. Negotiating Comm

  97. Stone, R.P. and Moore, N.: 1997, Control of Soil Erosion. Factsheet, <http://www.gov.pm.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/facts/95–089.htm.> (12/18/2002)

  98. A.M. Sugden G.F. Rands (1990) ArticleTitle‘The ecology of temperate and cereal fields’ Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5 205–206 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0169-5347(90)90131-V

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. A.M. Sugden R. Stone C. Ash (2004) ArticleTitle‘Ecology in the underworld’ Science 304 1613 Occurrence Handle10.1126/science.304.5677.1613 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXkvFaiur0%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Sundquist, B.: 2000, Topsoil Loss – Causes. Effects, and Implications: A Global Perspective, 4th ed., <http://www.alltel.net/~bsundquist1/.> (10/8/2002)

  101. SWAG: 2002, Principles of Erosion and Sediment Control, <http://www.watershedrestoration.org/erosion.htm.> (8/10/2002)

  102. G. Taddese (2001) ArticleTitleLand degradation: ‘A challenge to Ethiopia’ Environment Management 27 IssueID6 815–824 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MzhvFSquw%3D%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. D. Tilman J.A. Downing (1994) ArticleTitle‘Biodiversity and stability in grasslands’ Nature 367 363–365 Occurrence Handle10.1038/367363a0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. S.W. Trimble (1994) ArticleTitle‘Erosional effects of cattle on stream banks in Tennessee’ USA Earth Surface Processes Landforms 19 451–464

    Google Scholar 

  105. S.W. Trimble A.C. Mendel (1995) ArticleTitle‘The cow as a geomorphic agent – a critical review’ Geomorphology 13 233–253 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0169-555X(95)00028-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. F.R. Troeh L.M. Thompson (1993) Soils and Soil Fertility EditionNumber5 Oxford University Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  107. F.R. Troeh J.A. Hobbs R.L. Donahue (1991) Soil and Water Conservation Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  108. UN-NADAF: 1996, UN-NADAF Mid-Term Review: Focus on Key Sectors: Environment. Africa Recovery 10(2): p. 23. October 1996

  109. N.D. Uri (2001) ArticleTitle‘Agriculture and the environment – the problem of soil erosion’ Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 16 IssueID4 71–91

    Google Scholar 

  110. InstitutionalAuthorNameUSDA (1989) The Second RCA Appraisal. Soil, Water, and Related Resources on Nonfederal Land in the United States. Analysis of Conditions and Trends US Department of Agriculture Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  111. USDA: 2000a, Changes in Average Annual Soil Erosion by Water on Cropland and CRP Land, 1992 –1997, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Revised December 2000

  112. USDA: 2000b, Changes in Average Annual Soil Erosion by Wind on Cropland and CRP Land, 1992 – 1997, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Revised December 2000

  113. InstitutionalAuthorNameUSDA (2001) Agricultural Statistics USDA Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  114. Walsh, K.N. and Rowe, M.S.: 2001, Biodiversity Increases Ecosystems’ Ability to Absorb CO2 and Nitrogen, <http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2001bnlpr041101.htm.> (8/10/2002)

  115. D.A. Wardle R.D. Bardgett J.N. Klironomos H. Setala W.H. Putten Particlevan der D.H. Wall (2004) ArticleTitle‘Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota’ Science 304 1629–1633 Occurrence Handle10.1126/science.1094875 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXks1Cgsrs%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. Watershed: 2002, Watershed Conditions: Cumulative Watershed Effects, <http://www.krisweb.com/watershd/impacts.htm.> (10/8/2002)

  117. G.A. Weesies S.J. Livingston W.D. Hosteter D.L. Schertz (1994) ArticleTitle‘Effect of soil erosion on crop yield in Indiana: results of a 10 year study’ Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 49 IssueID6 597–600

    Google Scholar 

  118. WEI: 2002, Wind Erosion Impacts, <http://www.cahe.wsu.edu/~cp3/erosion/erosion.html.> (10/8/2002)

  119. D. Wen (1993) ‘Soil erosion and conservation in China’ D. Pimentel (Eds) Soil Erosion and Conservation. Cambridge University Press New York 63–86

    Google Scholar 

  120. Wen, D.: 1997, Agriculture in China: Water and Energy Resources, Shenyang, China. Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciencea, Forthcoming.

  121. R.C. Wendt E.E. Alberts A.T. Helmers (1986) ArticleTitleVariability of runoff and soil loss from fallow experimental plots SSSAJ 50 730–736

    Google Scholar 

  122. WHO: 2004, World Health Report, http://www.who.int/whr/2004/annex/topic/en.annex_2_en.pdf. (10/1/04). Note: World Health Reports for previous years can be accessed through this site.

  123. Wind Particles: 2002, Wind Particles and Health, <http://res2.agr.ca/research-recherche/science/Healthy_Air4d.html.> (4/29/2002).

  124. Witt, B.: 1997, Using Soil Fauna to Improve Soil Health, <http://www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/97papers/witt.html.> (10/8/2002).

  125. M. Wood (1989) Soil Biology Blackie, Chapman and Hall New York

    Google Scholar 

  126. World Problems: 1999, Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential, <http://www/uia.org/uiademo/pro/d9118.htm.> (8/26/1999)

  127. InstitutionalAuthorNameWRI (1994) World Resources Institute Oxford University Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  128. InstitutionalAuthorNameWRI (1997) World Resources Institute Oxford University Press New York

    Google Scholar 

  129. D.H. Wright (1990) ArticleTitle‘Human impacts on energy flow through natural ecosystems’ and replications for species endangerment Ambio 19 189–194

    Google Scholar 

  130. A. Young (1989) Agroforestry for Soil Conservation C.A.B Wallingford, UK

    Google Scholar 

  131. A. Young (1990) ArticleTitleAgroforestry, environment and sustainability Outlook Agriculture 19 155–160

    Google Scholar 

  132. A. Young (1998) Land Resources: Now and for the Future Cambridge University Press Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  133. T.P. Zacharias A.H. Grube (1984) ArticleTitle‘An economic evaluation of weed control methods used in combination with crop rotations: a stochastic dominance approach’ North Central Journal of Agricultural Economy 6 113–120

    Google Scholar 

  134. X. Zhang D.E. Walling T.A. Quine A. Wen (1997) ArticleTitle‘Use of reservoir deposits and caesium-137 measurements to investigate the erosional response of a small drainage basin in the rolling loess plateau region of China’ Land Degradation and Development 8 1–16 Occurrence Handle10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199703)8:1<1::AID-LDR240>3.0.CO;2-X Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjtFamur4%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. Ziemer, R.R.: 1998, ‘Flooding and stormflows’, in R.R. Ziemer, Technical coordinator, Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal watersheds: The Caspar Creek Story, Ukia, CA, Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. Albany, CA, ‘Pacific Southwest Research Station’, USDA Forest Service, 15–24

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Pimentel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pimentel, D. Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat. Environ Dev Sustain 8, 119–137 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-005-1262-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • environment
  • erosion
  • food
  • nutrition
  • soil
  • water
  • wind