Mapping Cumulative Environmental Risks: Examples from the EU NoMiracle Project
We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms under the CA assumption, and two techniques to (1) integrate risks using data-driven, parametric statistical methods, and (2) cluster together areas with similar occurrence of different risk factors, respectively. The examples are used to discuss some general issues, particularly on the conventional nature of cumulative risk maps, and may provide some suggestions for the practice of cumulative risk mapping.
KeywordsCumulative environmental risk GIS mapping Mixtures Multiple stressors Pesticides Metals Spatial distribution
This paper contains considerations jointly developed by different partners of the NoMiracle project consortium. The individual case studies presented here are provided by single partners, to which the reader may refer for further details and for all scientific aspects not related to the specific topic of risk mapping: A. Pistocchi and P. Vizcaino for the European mapping of pesticides, S. Sala and M. Vighi for the case study on pesticides in Lombardy, J. Groenwold and J. Lahr for the one on pesticides in the Netherlands, M. Loos and A. Ragas for the case study on risks to individual organisms, U. Schlink and K. Strebel for the case of benzene in Leipzig, and M. Mujica and R. Rallo for the case on aquifer vulnerability mapping in Catalonia. J. Lahr coordinated the mapping exercises within the frame of NoMiracle Project work package 4.4, while A. Pistocchi coordinated the writing of the paper. The research was partly funded by the European Commission FP6 contract no. 003956 (NoMiracle IP: http://nomiracle.jrc.ec.europa.eu). Funding of Alterra, Wageningen UR, was also obtained from the Strategic research program “Sustainable spatial development of ecosystems, landscapes, seas and regions” financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Food Quality (LNV).
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