Automatic repair of real bugs in java: a large-scale experiment on the defects4j dataset

Abstract

Defects4J is a large, peer-reviewed, structured dataset of real-world Java bugs. Each bug in Defects4J comes with a test suite and at least one failing test case that triggers the bug. In this paper, we report on an experiment to explore the effectiveness of automatic test-suite based repair on Defects4J. The result of our experiment shows that the considered state-of-the-art repair methods can generate patches for 47 out of 224 bugs. However, those patches are only test-suite adequate, which means that they pass the test suite and may potentially be incorrect beyond the test-suite satisfaction correctness criterion. We have manually analyzed 84 different patches to assess their real correctness. In total, 9 real Java bugs can be correctly repaired with test-suite based repair. This analysis shows that test-suite based repair suffers from under-specified bugs, for which trivial or incorrect patches still pass the test suite. With respect to practical applicability, it takes on average 14.8 minutes to find a patch. The experiment was done on a scientific grid, totaling 17.6 days of computation time. All the repair systems and experimental results are publicly available on Github in order to facilitate future research on automatic repair.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    1 The dataset and the repair system in Kim et al. (2013) are not publicly available.

  2. 2.

    2 Apache Commons Lang, http://commons.apache.org/lang.

  3. 3.

    3 JFreeChart, http://jfree.org/jfreechart/.

  4. 4.

    4 Apache Commons Math, http://commons.apache.org/math.

  5. 5.

    5 Joda-Time, http://joda.org/joda-time/.

  6. 6.

    6 Google Closure Compiler, http://code.google.com/closure/compiler/.

  7. 7.

    7 Bug ID in the bug tracking system of Commons Math is Math-942, http://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-942.

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Acknowledgments

This work is partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (under grant 61502345).

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Correspondence to Matias Martinez.

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Communicated by: Sunghun Kim

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Martinez, M., Durieux, T., Sommerard, R. et al. Automatic repair of real bugs in java: a large-scale experiment on the defects4j dataset. Empir Software Eng 22, 1936–1964 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-016-9470-4

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Keywords

  • Software repair
  • Bugs
  • Defects
  • Patches
  • Fixes