Empirical Software Engineering

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1146–1193

A large-scale study of architectural evolution in open-source software systems

  • Pooyan Behnamghader
  • Duc Minh Le
  • Joshua Garcia
  • Daniel Link
  • Arman Shahbazian
  • Nenad Medvidovic

DOI: 10.1007/s10664-016-9466-0

Cite this article as:
Behnamghader, P., Le, D.M., Garcia, J. et al. Empir Software Eng (2017) 22: 1146. doi:10.1007/s10664-016-9466-0


From its very inception, the study of software architecture has recognized architectural decay as a regularly occurring phenomenon in long-lived systems. Architectural decay is caused by repeated, sometimes careless changes to a system during its lifespan. Despite decay’s prevalence, there is a relative dearth of empirical data regarding the nature of architectural changes that may lead to decay, and of developers’ understanding of those changes. In this paper, we take a step toward addressing that scarcity by introducing an architecture recovery framework, ARCADE, for conducting large-scale replicable empirical studies of architectural change across different versions of a software system. ARCADE includes two novel architectural change metrics, which are the key to enabling large-scale empirical studies of architectural change. We utilize ARCADE to conduct an empirical study of changes found in software architectures spanning several hundred versions of 23 open-source systems. Our study reveals several new findings regarding the frequency of architectural changes in software systems, the common points of departure in a system’s architecture during the system’s maintenance and evolution, the difference between system-level and component-level architectural change, and the suitability of a system’s implementation-level structure as a proxy for its architecture.


Software architecture Architectural change Software evolution Open-source software Architecture recovery 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Science Foundation (US)
  • 1117593
  • 1218115
  • 1321141

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Software ResearchUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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