, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 215–246 | Cite as

Structural differences across macroregions: an empirical investigation

  • Laura Barbieri
  • Chiara Mussida
Original Paper


Using a macro–micro econometric framework that allows studying the labour market dynamics, this paper offers an in-depth investigation of the structures of both national and macro regional labour markets in Italy. The simulation results reveal structural differences between regions in the short as well as the long run. Regional gaps represent one of the main components of the natural unemployment rate in Italy. The results may help regional and national policy makers in the European Union to formulate strategies tailored to the specific needs of regional labour markets.


Regional econometric models Simulation Labour market flows Steady-state unemployment rate 

JEL Classification

E1 E17 R2 R23 


  1. Addabbo T, García-Fernández R, Llorca-Rodríguez C, Maccagnan A (2012) Poverty and unemployment: the cases of Italy and Spain. In: Parodi G, Sciulli D (eds) Social exclusion short and long term causes and consequences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Aeschimann G, Antille G, Carlevaro F, Chaze JP, Ferro-Luzzi G, Flückiger Y, Gilli M (1999) Modelling and forecasting the social contributions to the Swiss Old Age and Survivor Insurance scheme. Swiss J Econ Stat 135:349–368Google Scholar
  3. Allen K, Stevenson A (1974) An introduction to the Italian economy. Martin Robertson & Co., Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Attanasio O, Padoa-Schioppa F (1991) Regional inequalities, migration and mismatch in Italy. In: Padoa-Schioppa F (ed) Mismatch and labor mobility. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1980–1986Google Scholar
  5. Azmat G, Guell M, Manning A (2006) Gender gaps in unemployment rates in OECD countries. J Labour Econ 24:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bachman R, Bechara P, Kramer A, Rzepka CJ (2015) Labour market dynamics and worker heterogeneity during the great recession: evidence from Europe. IZA discussion paper, vol 9233. Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldini M, Ciani E (2011) Inequality and poverty during the recession in Italy. Polit Econ J Econ Policy 3:297–322Google Scholar
  8. Barbieri L (2010) The Italian labour market. A ‘global’ regional econometric model. VDM - Verlag Dr. Muller, SaarbruckenGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbieri L, Baussola M, Mussida C (2013) A macro–micro econometric model for the Italian labour market. Riv Int Sci Soc 1:5–30Google Scholar
  10. Barnichon R, Nekarda CJ (2012) The ins and outs of forecasting unemployment: using labor force flows to forecast the labor market. Brook Pap Econ Act 1:83–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baussola M (2007) Modelling a regional economic system: the case of lombardy. Reg Stud 41:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baussola M, Fiorito R (1994) Regional unemployment in Italy: sources and cures. J Policy Model 16:497–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baussola M, Mussida C (2014a) Transitions in the labour market: discouragement effect and individual characteristics. Labour 28:209–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baussola M, Mussida C (2014b) Disadvantages workers in the Italian labour market: gender and regional gaps. In: Malo MA, Sciulli D (eds) Disadvantaged workers: empirical evidence and labour policies. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  15. Benati L (2001) Some empirical evidence on the “discouraged worker” effect. Econ Lett 70:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bettio F, Corsi M, D’Ippoliti C, Lyberaki A, Samek Lodovici M, Verashchagina A (2012) The impact of the economic crisis on the situation of women and men and on gender equality policies. European CommissionGoogle Scholar
  17. Bertola G, Garibaldi P (2003) The structure and history of Italian unemployment. Journal of Policy Modeling, CESifo working paper series no. 907Google Scholar
  18. Blanchard O, Jimeno JF (1995) Structural unemployment: Spain versus Portugal. Am Econ Rev 85:212–218Google Scholar
  19. Bodo G, Sestito P (1991) Le vie dello sviluppo. II Mulino, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandolini A, Cipollone P, Viviano E (2004) Does the ILO definition capture all unemployment? Temi di discussione Banca d’Italia No. 529Google Scholar
  21. Brunello G, Lupi C, Ordine P (2001) Widening differences in Italian regional unemployment. Labour Econ 8:103–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cameron AC, Trivedi PK (2005) Microeconometrics: methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Checchi D, Peragine V (2010) Inequality of opportunity in Italy. J Econ Inequal 8:429–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Contini B, Rapiti F (1994) Young In Old Out: nuovi pattern di mobilità nell’economia Italiana. Lavoro e Relazioni Industriali 1:51–76Google Scholar
  25. Daly MC, Hobijn B, Sahin A, Valletta RG (2012) A search and matching approach to labor markets: did the natural rate of unemployment rise? J Econ Perspect 26:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de la Rica S, Rebollo-Sanz YF (2015) Gender differentials in unemployment ins and outs during the great recession in Spain. IZA discussion paper, vol 9135. Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  27. Elsby MWL, Hobijn B, Sahin A (2013) Unemployment dynamics in the OECD. Rev Econ Stat 95:530–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. European Commission (2008) Employment in Europe 2008Google Scholar
  29. Fauser S (2011) Modeling regional labor markets in Germany: insights not only for Germany policy makers. Empirica 38:169–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gourieroux C (1989) Econométrie des variables qualitative, 2nd edn. Economica, ParisGoogle Scholar
  31. Graziani A (1980) L’Economia Italiana dal 1935 ad oggi. II Mulino, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  32. ISTAT (2002) Forze di Lavoro, Media 2001, Annuario no. 7Google Scholar
  33. ISTAT (2005) Conti Economici Regionali (Anni 1980–2004), AnnuariGoogle Scholar
  34. ISTAT (2006) La rilevazione sulle Forze di Lavoro: contenuti, metodologie, organizzazione, Metodi e Norme no. 32Google Scholar
  35. ISTAT (2012) Conti Economici Regionali (Anni 1995–2012), AnnuariGoogle Scholar
  36. Kennedy P (2008) A guide to econometrics. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Limosani M (2004) Beyond regional institutions: widening unemployment differentials in Italy. Labour 18:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Manacorda M, Petrongolo B (2006) Regional mismatch and unemployment: theory and evidence from Italy, 1977–1998. J Popul Econ 19:137–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. OECD (2007) OECD Economic Outlook 2007Google Scholar
  40. Ricciardi L (1991) La disoccupazione di lunga durata in Italia: un’analisi dell’evidenza empirica nel periodo 1977–1989. Econ Lavoro 25:69–94Google Scholar
  41. Şahin A, Song J, Topa G, Violante GL (2011) Measuring mismatch in the U.S. labor market. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Salituro B, Scorcu AE (2001) Il tasso di disoccupazione di equilibrio nelle regioni Italiane. Polit Econ 2:129–158Google Scholar
  43. SVIMEZ (1998) I Conti economici delle regioni italiane. Il Mulino, Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  44. Tella A (1964) The relation of labor force to employment. Ind Labor Relat Rev 17:454–469Google Scholar
  45. Tronti L, Gatto R (2012) Measuring the long wave. Unemployment, discouragement and semi-employment in Italy, during and after the crisis. In: Parodi G, Sciulli D (eds) Social exclusion short and long term causes and consequences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economic and Social SciencesUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuorePiacenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations