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55 xenobiotic organic compounds in Tripoli landfill-Lebanon leachate and their fluxes to the Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea

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Pollution generated from landfill solid wastes constitute one of the major threat to the environment. The landfill leachate contains various toxic pollutants, making it the most dangerous issue of the landfills. Monitoring the xenobiotic organic concentrations in landfill leachate is an important step to evaluate the environmental impacts. This work aims to characterize the seasonal variation of 55 xenobiotic organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and bisphenols (BPs) in the leachate from municipal solid waste landfill of Tripoli, Lebanon. And also, the quantity of the pollutant’s flux to the Abou Ali River and the Mediterranean Sea nearby has been estimated. The organic pollutants were extracted by using the solid-phase extraction and quantified by using GC–MS/MS. The results showed high level of PAEs, BPs, PCBs, and PAHs in the leachate samples. The fluxes of pollutants to the Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea have been detected at 0.23 kg, 0.01 kg, 116.85 kg, 15.93 kg, and 7.58 kg for Σ16PAHs, Σ28PCBs, Σ6PAEs, Σ4BPs, and 4-NP respectively.

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The authors declare that all relevant data supporting the findings of this study are included in this article.


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The authors are grateful for the technical support provided by CPER CLIMBIO project. We acknowledge the financial support from the “Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF)” of Tripoli, North Lebanon, which provided a PhD scholarship for Ahmad Moustafa.


Ahmad Moustafa is financially supported by a PhD fellowship from the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF)” of Tripoli, North Lebanon.

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Moustafa A and Net S conducted the experiments and analyzed the data. Hamzeh, Baroudi M, and Ouddane B assisted in the experiments and discussed the results. Moustafa A and Net S wrote the manuscript and drew the graphs. All the co-authors revised and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sopheak Net.

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The funders had no role in the writing of the manuscript or in the decision and use of data.

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Moustafa, A., Hamzeh, M., Baroudi, M. et al. 55 xenobiotic organic compounds in Tripoli landfill-Lebanon leachate and their fluxes to the Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea. Environ Monit Assess 194, 856 (2022).

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