Skip to main content

Spatial distribution, risk assessment, and source identification of pollutants around gold tailings ponds: a case study in Pinggu District, Beijing, China

Abstract

This work investigated heavy metal and cyanide pollution in surface soils and edible plants around Yanzhuang gold tailings ponds in the region of Yanzhuang Village in Pinggu District, Beijing. Surface soil samples were collected from 33 sites around gold tailings ponds, and concentrations of seven heavy metals (i.e., Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg) and cyanide were analyzed to determine their spatial distributions, pollution degrees, and sources. The potential ecological risks of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg were preliminarily assessed. The results showed that the mean cyanide, Sb, As, Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations were higher than the standard values. The pollutant concentrations around the tailings ponds were high and decreased with increasing distance from the ponds. The single pollution index indicated that cyanide, As, and Cd were the main pollutants. The Nemerow pollution index revealed a large region and serious degree of heavy metal pollution in soils. The potential ecological risk level of the study area was moderate, with Cd and As posing the main risks. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the heavy metal and cyanide pollution present mainly derived from gold tailings, with agricultural pollution also had a certain effect. However, the 12 edible plants sampled were basically not polluted.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Availability of data and material

This manuscript has data included as electronic supplementary materials.

References

  1. Abulimiti, A., Wang, J., Wang, H., Sawut, R., Abliz, A., & Hasan, U. (2017). Spatial distribution analysis of heavy metals in soil and atmospheric dust fall and their relationships in Xinjiang Eastern Junggar mining area. Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 33(23), 259–266. https://doi.org/10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2017.23.034

  2. Acosta, J. A., Faz, A., Martinez, M., Zornoza, R., Carmona, D. M., & Kabas, S. (2011). Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to evaluate heavy metals behavior in mine sites for future reclamation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 109, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2011.01.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Adimalla, N., Qian, H., & Wang, H. K. (2019). Assessment of heavy metal (HM) contamination in agricultural soil lands in northern Telangana, India: An approach of spatial distribution and multivariate statistical analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(4), 246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7408-1

  4. Ali, S. M., & Malik, R. N. (2011). Spatial distribution of metals in top soils of Islamabad City, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 172, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1314-x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Alloway, B. J. (2013). Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. Environmental Pollution, 22, 11–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4470-7_2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Amadi, A. N., Ebieme, E. E., Musa, A., Olashinde, P. I., Ameh, I. M., & Shuaibu, A. M. (2017). Utility of pollution indices in assessment of soil quality around Madaga gold mining site, Niger state, North-central Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science, 2, 417–430. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijs.v19i2.22

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Askari, M. S., Alamdari, P., Chahardoli, S., & Afshari, A. (2020). Quantification of heavy metal pollution for environmental assessment of soil condition. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(3), 162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8116-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Assawincharoenkij, T., Hauzenberger, C., & Sutthirat, C. (2017). Mineralogy and geochemistry of tailings from a gold mine in northeastern Thailand. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 23(2), 364–387. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2016.124889

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Barla, A., Shrivastava, A., Majumdar, A., Upadhyay, M., & K., & Bose, S. . (2017). Heavy metal dispersion in water saturated and water unsaturated soil of Bengal delta region, India. Chemosphere, 168, 807–816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.132

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bempah, C. K., & Ewusi, A. (2016). Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(5), 261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5241-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cao, F. F., Kong, L. H., Yang, L. Y., & Zhang, W. (2015). Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 13496–13505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4618-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chen, M., Lu, W. X., Hou, Z. Y., Zhang, Y., Jiang, X., & Wu, J. C. (2017). Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 3084–3096. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7968-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chen, L., Wang, K. R., Wang, F. L., Song, N. N., & Liu, J. (2018). Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in the agricultural soil-maize system of a gold mining area in Pingdu City, China. Journal of Agricultural Resources and Environment, 2, 161–166. https://doi.org/10.13254/j.jare.2017.0258

  14. Cheng, H. X., Li, M., Zhao, C. D., Li, K., Peng, M., Qin, A. H., & Cheng, X. M. (2014). Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31 metropolises in China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 139, 31–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.08.012

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ciarkowska, K. (2018). Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks and enzyme activity of meadow soils in urban area under tourism load: A case study from Zakopane (Poland). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(14), 13709–13718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1589-y

  16. Davies, B. E., & White, H. M. (1981). Trace element in vegetables grown on soils contaminated by base metal mining. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 3, 387–396. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904168109362846

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Devi, N. L., & Yadav, I. C. (2018). Chemometric evaluation of heavy metal pollutions in Patna region of the Ganges alluvial plain, India: Implication for source apportionment and health risk assessment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40, 2343–2358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0101-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. El Azhari, A., Rhoujjati, A., Laârabi El Hachimi, M., & Ambrosi, J. P. (2017). Pollution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-plant system and the sediment-water column around a former Pb/Zn-mining area in NE Morocco Ecotoxicol. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 144, 464–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.06.051

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Facchinelli, A., Sacchi, E., & Mallen, L. (2001). Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environmental Pollution, 114, 313–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00243-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Feng, X., Dai, Q., Qiu, G., Li, G., He, L., & Wang, D. (2006). Gold mining related mercury contamination in Tongguan, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Applied Geochemistry, 21, 1955–1968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.08.014

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gao, J., & Wang, L. (2018). Ecological and human health risk assessments in the context of soil heavy metal pollution in a typical industrial area of Shanghai, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2705-8

  22. Guan, Y., Shao, C. F., Gu, Q. B., Ju, M. T., & Huang, X. J. (2016). Study of a comprehensive assessment method of the environmental quality of soil in industrial and mining gathering areas. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 30, 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-015-1036-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Guan, Y., Shao, C., & Ju, M. (2014). Heavy metal contamination assessment and partition for industrial and mining gathering areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 7286–7303. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110707286

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hakanson, L. (1980). Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control A Sedimentological Approach. Water Research, 14, 975–1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hu, W. Y., Wang, H. F., Dong, L. R., Huang, B., Borggaard, O. K., Hansen, H. C. B., He, Y., & Holm, P. E. (2018). Source identification of heavy metals in peri-urban agricultural soils of southeast China: An integrated approach. Environmental Pollution, 237, 650–661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.070

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Jarsjö, J., Chalov, S. R., Pietroń, J., Alekseenko, A. V., & Thorslund, J. (2017). Patterns of soil contamination, erosion and river loading of metals in a gold mining region of northern Mongolia. Regional Environmental Change, 17, 1991–2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1169-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Kowalska, J., Mazurek, R., Gąsiorek, M., Setlak, M., Zaleski, T., & Waroszewski, J. (2016). Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity-A case study from Krakow (Poland). Environmental Pollution, 218, 1023–1036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.053

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kumar, V., Sharma, A., Kaur, P., Singh Sidhu, G. P., Bali, A. S., Bhardwaj, R., Thukral, A. K., & Cerda, A. (2018). Pollution assessment of heavy metals in soils of India and ecological risk assessment: A state-of-the-art. Chemosphere. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.066

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Lee, C. S., Li, X. D., Shi, W. Z., Cheung, S. C., & Thornton, I. (2006). Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: A study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. Science of the Total Environment, 356, 45–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.03.024

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Lei, L., Ma, Y. B., Zhang, S. Z., Wei, D. P., & Zhu, Y. G. (2009). An inventory of trace element inputs to agricultural soils in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2524–2530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Li, C. F., Cao, J. F., Yao, L., Wu, Q. Y., & Lv, J. S. (2020). Pollution status and ecological risk of heavy metals in the soils of five land-use types in a typical sewage irrigation area, eastern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(7), 471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08384-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Li, X., Yang, H., Zhang, C., Zeng, G. M., Liu, Y. G., Xu, W. H. W. Y., & Lan, S. M. (2017). Spatial distribution and transport characteristics of heavy metals around an antimony mine area in central China. Chemosphere, 170, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Li, H. Y., Chen, X. Z., Ge, C. F., & Zhang, H. J. (2018). Research on environmental impact and prevention countermeasures of gold mine in Beijing. China Energy and Environmental Protection, 40, 83–86 (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.19389/j.cnki.1003-0506.2018.01.016

  34. Li, H. Y., & Hu, L. Z. (2006). The impacts of gold mines on the ecoenvironment of Beijing. Urban Geology, 01, 37–40 (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1007-1903.2006.01.010

  35. Li, Q., Ji, H., Qin, F., Tang, L., Guo, X., & Feng, J. (2014). Sources and the distribution of heavymetals in the particle size of soil polluted by gold mining upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing: Implications for assessing the potential risks. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186, 6605–6626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3877-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Li, X., & Feng, L. (2012). Multivariate and geostatistical analyzes of metals in urban soil of Weinan industrial areas, Northwest of China. Atmospheric Environment, 47, 58–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.041

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Liang, J., Feng, C. T., Zeng, G. M., Gao, X., Zhong, M. Z., Li, X. D., Li, X., He, X. Y., & Fang, Y. L. (2017). Spatial distribution and source identification of heavy metals in surface soils in a typical coal mine city, Lianyuan, China. Environmental Pollution, 225, 681–690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.03.057

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lim, H. S., Lee, J. S., Chon, H. T., & Sager, M. (2008). Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au-Ag mine in Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 96, 223–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2007.04.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ma, X. L., Zuo, H., Tian, M. J., Zhang, L. Y., Meng, J., Zhou, X. N., Min, N., Chang, X. Y., & Liu, Y. (2015). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in sediments from three adjacent regions of the Yellow River using metal chemical fractions and multivariate analysis techniques. Chemosphere, 144, 264–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.026

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Manta, D. S., Angelone, M., Bellanca, A., Neri, R., & Sprovieri, M. (2002). Heavy metals in urban soils: A case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy. Science of the Total Environment, 300, 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00273-5

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Martínez-Martínez, S., Acosta, J. A., Cano, A. F., Carmona, D. M., Zornoza, R., & Cerda, C. (2013). Assessment of the lead and zinc contents in natural soils and tailing ponds from the Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 124, 166–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.09.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Masoumeh, S. P. S., Fatemeh, S., Nafiseh, Y. M., & Hassan, K. (2020). Evaluation of heavy metal contamination and ecological risk of soil adjacent to Saravan municipal solid waste disposal site, Rasht, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(12), 75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08716-1

  43. McGrath, D., Zhang, C. S., & Carton, O. T. (2003). Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 127, 239–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.07.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Nicholson, F. A., Smith, S. R., Alloway, B. J., Carlton-Smith, C., & Chambers, B. J. (2003). An inventory of heavy metal input to agricultural soil in England and Wales. Science of the Total Environment, 311, 205–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00139-6

  45. Odukoya, A. M., Olobaniyi, S. B., & Oluseyi, T. O. (2018). Assessment of potentially toxic elements pollution and human health risk in soil of Ilesha gold mining site, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 6, 743–748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-018-0933-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Pan, L. B., Ma, J., Hu, Y., Su, B. Y., Fang, G. L., Wang, Y., Wang, Z. S., Wang, L., & Xiang, B. (2016). Assessments of levels, potential ecological risk, and human health risk of heavy metals in the soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(19), 19330–19340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7044-z

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ran, J., Wang, D. J., Wang, C., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H. L. (2016). Heavy metal contents, distribution, and prediction in a regional soil-wheat system. Science of the Total Environment, 544, 422–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.105

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Rastegari Mehr, M., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Sharifi, R., Lahijanzadeh, A., & Kermani, M. (2017). Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 132, 16–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.04.026

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Sheijany, S. P., & M., Shariati, F., Yaghmaeian Mahabadi, N., & Karimzadegan, H. . (2020). Evaluation of heavy metal contamination and ecological risk of soil adjacent to Saravan municipal solid waste disposal site, Rasht Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(12), 75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08716-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Shao, W. W. (2009). Strike hard to end the “sequela” of gold mining-Summary of tailings pond management in Pinggu District of Beijing. Modern Occupational Safety, 05, 37–39 (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-4156.2009.05.019

  51. Shim, C., Wang, Y., Singh, H. B., Blake, D. R., & Guenther, A. B. (2007). Source characteristics of genated volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112, D10305. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007543

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Sobrino-Figueroa, A. S., Becerra-Rueda, O. F., Magallanes-Ordóñez, V. R., Sánchez-González, A., & Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J. (2015). Toxicity in semiarid sediments influenced by tailings of an abandoned gold mine. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(1), 4158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4158-y

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Sun, H., Li, J., & Mao, X. (2012). Heavy metals’ spatial distribution characteristics in a copper mining area of Zhejiang Province. Journal of Geographic Information System, 4, 46–54. https://doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2012.41007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Sun, Y., Zhou, Q., Xie, X., & Rui, L. (2010). Spatial, sources and risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of urban soils in typical regions of Shenyang, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 174, 455–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.074

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1994). Mercury in Liquid Waste (Manual Cold - Vapor Technique). US EPA 7470A.

  56. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Cyanide in Waters and Extracts Using Titrimetric and Manual Spectrophotometric Procedures. US EPA 9014.

  57. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2018). Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry. US EPA 6010D.

  58. Velásquez-López, P. C., Veiga, M. M., & Hall, K. (2010). Mercury balance in amalgamation in artisanal and small-scale gold mining: Identifying strategies for reducing environmental pollution in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 226–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.10.010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Wang, H. Y., & Lu, S. G. (2011). Spatial distribution, source identification and affecting factors of heavy metals contamination in urban-suburban soils of Lishui city, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64, 1921–1929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1005-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Wang, Y. Q., Yang, L. Y., Kong, L. H., Liu, E. F., Wang, L. F., & Zhu, J. R. (2015). Spatial distribution, ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediments from Dongping Lake, Shandong, East China. Catena, 125, 200–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Wanjala, F. O., Hashim, N. O., Otwoma, D., Nyambura, C., Kebwaro, J., Ndege, M., & Bartilol, S. (2020). Environmental assessment of heavy metal pollutants in soils and water from Ortum Kenya. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(2), 118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8070-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Wu, Y. G., Xu, Y. N., Zhang, J. H., & Hu, S. H. (2010). Evaluation of ecological risk and primary empirical research on heavy metals in polluted soil over Xiaoqinling gold mining region, Shaanxi, China. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 20, 688–694. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60199-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Xiao, R., Bai, J. H., Huang, L. B., Zhang, H. G., Cui, B. S., & Liu, X. H. (2013). Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China. Ecotoxicology, 22(10), 1564–1575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1142-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Xiao, R., Wang, S., Li, R. H., Wang, J. J., & Zhan, Z. Q. (2017). Soil heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with artisanal gold mining in Tongguan, Shaanxi, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 141, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.03.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Xie, B. N., Jia, X. X., Qin, Z. F., Zhao, C. L., & Shao, M. A. (2020). Comparison of interpolation methods for soil moisture prediction on China’s Loess Plateau. Vadose Zone Journal, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20025

  66. Yuan, Y., Zeng, G., Liang, J., Huang, L., Hua, S., Li, F., Zhu, Y., Wu, H., Liu, J., & He, X. (2015). Variation of water level in Dongting Lake over a 50-year period: Implications for the impacts of anthropogenic and climatic factors. Journal of Hydrology, 525, 450–456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.04.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Zang, F., Wang, S. L., Nan, Z. R., Ma, J. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, Y. Z., & Li, Y. P. (2017). Accumulation, spatio-temporal distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-corn system around a polymetallic mining area from the Loess Plateau, northwest China. Geoderma, 305, 188–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.06.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Zhang, A. X., Nie, Y. N., Ji, H. B., Feng, J. G., & Qin, F. (2014). Spatial distribution, fractionation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in Wanzhuang gold mining field in upstream part of water conservation area of Beijing, China. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 33, 2321–2328 (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.11654/jaes.2014.12.007

  69. Zhang, C. S. (2006). Using multivariate analyses and GIS to identify pollutants and their spatial patterns in urban soils in Galway, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 142, 501–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.028

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Zhang, L. (2014). Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of soils from ancient Linglong gold mine area China. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 10(6), 1660–1665.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Zhang, X. Y., Lin, F. F., Wong Mike, T. F., Feng, X. L., & Wang, K. (2009). Identification of soil heavy metal sources from anthropogenic activities and pollution assessment of Fuyang County, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 154, 439–449. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0410-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Zhao, L., Xu, Y., Hou, H., Shangguan, Y., & Li, F. (2013). Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in urban soils around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China. Science of the Total Environment, 468–469, 654–662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.094

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Zhong, B., Liang, T., Wang, L., & Li, K. (2014). Applications of stochastic models and geostatistical analyses to study sources and spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in a metalliferous industrial district of China. Science of the Total Environment, 490, 422–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.127

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The assistance of the Beijing Branch of ALS Analytical Testing (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., in detecting the pollution element contents in the soil and the assistance of the Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis in detecting the pollution element contents in plants are gratefully acknowledged.

Funding

This study was supported by the Beijing Tailings Ponds Investigation and Impact Assessment Project (No. TC170855A).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors of this manuscript have directly participated in planning, execution, and/or analysis of this study. Zhongjian Zhang, Lin Fu, and Qiguo Zhang conceived of the study, designed the study, and carried out field investigation. Qiguo Zhang and Hao Zhang analyzed data. Lin Fu wrote the manuscript. Zhongjian Zhang critically revised the manuscript. The manuscript is approved by all authors for publication.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhongjian Zhang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOC 4742 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fu, L., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Q. et al. Spatial distribution, risk assessment, and source identification of pollutants around gold tailings ponds: a case study in Pinggu District, Beijing, China. Environ Monit Assess 193, 483 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09274-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gold tailings pond
  • Heavy metals
  • Cyanide
  • Potential ecological risk
  • Source identification
  • Assessment