Skip to main content
Log in

Spatio-temporal investigation of surface soil hardness on professional football field

  • Published:
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The present study was conducted to identify the minimum number of sampling points to monitor surface hardness of the pitches through geostatistical methods and to determine spatial and temporal distribution of surface hardness in autumn, winter, spring, and summer periods. Initial samplings were performed from 126 points and with data reduction, the optimum number of sampling points was identified as 77. In upcoming sampling periods, surface hardness and soil temperature were directly measured in situ and disturbed soil samples taken from 77 points were subjected to moisture content, bulk density, and texture analyses (clay—C, silt—Si, and sand—S). In autumn period, surface hardness highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture content (r2 = − 0.438 and − 0.344, p < 0.01). Surface hardness significantly correlated only with soil temperature in winter period and only with bulk density in summer period (respectively r2 = − 0.366 and 0.234, p < 0.01). Average surface hardness values in autumn, winter, spring, and summer periods were respectively measured as 5.99, 6.55, 5.84, and 5.92%. Semivariograms generated for hardness were modeled with spherical model in all periods and a certain nugget effect was detected in all periods. Maximum likelihood distance for autumn, winter, spring, and summer periods was respectively measured as 65, 40, 45, and 46 m. It was concluded based on present findings that geostatistical methods could reliably be used to monitor surface hardness of football pitches and then proper and timely interventions could be made to sections not complying with FIFA standards.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Anonymous, (2017) General Directorate of State Meteorology Bulletin of Long Years Climate Data.

  • Atalay E. 2013. Futbolun önemi. Accessed 15 June 2019.

  • Başaran, M., Erpul, G., Tercan, A. E., et al. (2008). Environ Monit Assess, 136, 101.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Basaran, M., Erpul, G., Ugur Ozcan, A., et al. (2010). Effect of attachment configuration on the trapping efficiency of Vaseline-coated slide catchers for windblown particles. Environ Earth Sci, 61, 1375–1384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beard, J. B. (1973). Turfgrass: science and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall Inc 658 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burgess, T. M., & Webster, R. (1986a). Optimal interpolation and isarithmic mapping of soil properties: I. The semivariogram and punctual kriging. Journal of Soil Science, 31, 315–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burgess, T. M., & Webster, R. (1986b). Optimal interpolation and isarithmic mapping of soil properties: II. Block kriging. Journal of Soil Science, 31, 333–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carrow, R. N., & Petrovic, A. M. (1992). Effects of traffic on turfgrasses. In D. V. Waddington et al. (Eds.), Turfgrass agronomy monograph. 32. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, and Crop Science Society of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christians, N. E. (2011). Fundamentals of turfgrass management. John Wiley & Son, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey.

  • Cockerham, S. T. (2008). Culture of natural turf athletic fields. In M. Pessarakli (Ed.), Handbook of turfgrass management and physiology(pp. 151–167), Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

  • Emmons, R. (2000). Turfgrass Science and Management Third Edition (153 p). Albany, USA: Delmar Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flowers, M. D., & Lal, R. (1998). Axle load and tillage effects on soil physical properties and soybean grain yield on a mollic ochraqualf in orthwest Ohio. Soil Till. Res., 48, 21–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • FIFA. (2011). Quality Concept Handbook of Requirements for Football Turf (39 p). Switzerland: Federation Internationale de Football Association Zurich.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartge, K. H., & Stewart, B. A. (1995). Soil structure, its development and function (p. 393).

    Google Scholar 

  • Gee, G. W., & Bauder, J. V. (1986). Particle Size Analysis, Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physicaland Mineralogical Methods. 2nd edition. Agronomy no:9. 383-411 (p. 1188). Madison, Wisconsin USA.

  • Horn, R., Doma, H., Sowiska-Jurkiewicz, A., & Van Ouwerkerk, C. (1995). Soil compaction processes and their effects on the structure of arable soils and the environment. Soil Tillage Research, 35, 23–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Journel, A. G., & Huijbregts, C. J. (1978). Mining geostatistics (p. 600). London: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkegaard, J. A., So, H. B., Troedson, R. J., & Wallıs, E. S. (1992). The effect of compaction on the growth of pigeonpea on clay soils. I. Mechanisms of crop response and seasonal effects on a vertisol in a sub-humid environment. Soil Tillage Research, 24, 107–127 Lewis Publisher, New York.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lipiec, J., Ferrero, A., Giovanetti, V., Nosalewicz, A., & Turski, M. (2002). Response of structure to simulated trampling of woodland soil. Adv Geoecol, 35, 133–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matheron, G. (1965). Principles of geostatistics. Economic Geology, 58, 1246–1266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mclntyre, K., Jakobsen, B., 2000, Practical Drainage for Golf, Sportsturf and Horticulture, Ann Arbor Press, Chelsa, Michigan, 1-57504-139-1.

  • Morehouse, C. A. (1992). Artificial turf. In D. V. Waddington et al. (Eds.), Turfgrass agronomy monograph. 32. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, and Crop Science Society of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pagliai, M., Marsılı, A., Servadio, P., Vignozzi, N., & Pellegrini, S. (2003). Changes in some physical properties of a clay soil in Central Italy following the passage of rubber tracked and wheeled tractors of medium power. Soil and Tillage Research, 73, 119–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Panayiotopoulos, K. P., Papadopoulou, C. P., & Hatjiioannidou, A. (1994). Compaction and penetration resistance of an Alfisol and Entisol and their influence on root growth of maize seedlings. Soil and Tillage Research, 31, 323–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Puhalla, J., Krans, J. V., & Goatley, J. (2010). Sports fields, design, construction and maintenance. John Wiley and Sons Inc 516 p. Hoboken, NJ.

  • Radford, B. J., Brıdge, B. J., Davıs, R. J., Mcgarry, D., Pillai, U. P., Rickman, J. F., Walsh, P. A., & Yule, D. F. (2000). Changes in the properties of vertisol and responses of wheat after compaction with harvester traffic. Soil and Tillage Research, 54, 155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richard, G., Cousin, I., Sillon, J. F., Bruand, A., & Gue’rif, J. (2001). Effect of compaction on the porosity of a silty soil: influence on unsaturated hydraulic properties. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 49–58.

  • Saygın, S. D., Ozcan, A. U., Basaran, M., et al. (2014). The combined RUSLE/SDR approach integrated with GIS and geostatistics to estimate annual sediment flux rates in the semi-arid catchment, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci, 71, 1605–1618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Serensits, T. J., McNitt, A. S., & Sorochan, J. C. (2013). Synthetic turf. In J. C. Stier et al. (Eds.), Turfgrass: biology, use, and management. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, and Crop Science Society of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shah, A. N., Tanveer, M., Shahzad, B., Yang, G., Fahad, S., Ali, S., Bukhari, M. A., Tung, S. A., Hafeez, A., & Souliyanonh, B. (2017). Soil compaction effects on soil health and crop productivity: an overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 10056–10067.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trangmar, B. B., Yost, R. S., & Uehara, G. (1985). Application of geostatistics to spatial studies of soil properties. Advances Agronomy, 38, 45–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uzun, O., Kaplan, S., Basaran, M., Deviren, S. S., Youssef, F., Nouri, A., Ozcan, A. U., & Erpul, G. (2017). Spatial distribution of wind-driven sediment transport rate in a fallow plot in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Arid Land Research and Management, 31(2), 125–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, S., Grip, H., & Lövdahl, L. (2006). Effect of soil compaction on hydraulic properties of two loess in China. Soil and Tillage Research, 90, 117–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou, F., Guo, H. C., Ho, Y. S., & Wu, C. Z. (2007). Scientometric analysis of geostatistics using multivariate methods. Scientometrics, 73(3), 265–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to Prof. Dr. Zeki Gokalp (a Certified English Translator and an expert in Biosystems Engineering) for his critical reading and through syntactic corrections of the manuscript.


Authors wish to thank “Scientific Research Projects Department of Erciyes University” for the financial support provided for this study (Grand No: FYL-2017-7732).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mustafa Basaran.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Biraderoglu, M., Kaplan, S. & Basaran, M. Spatio-temporal investigation of surface soil hardness on professional football field. Environ Monit Assess 192, 151 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: