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Evaluation of non-carcinogenic risks due to fluoride and nitrate contaminations in a groundwater of an urban part (Coimbatore region) of south India

  • D. KarunanidhiEmail author
  • P. Aravinthasamy
  • Priyadarsi D. Roy
  • R. M. Praveenkumar
  • K. Prasanth
  • S. Selvapraveen
  • A. Thowbeekrahman
  • T. Subramani
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Groundwater quality investigations were carried out in one of the urban parts of south India for fluoride and nitrate contaminations, with special focus on human health risk assessment for the rapidly growing and increasingly industrialized Coimbatore City. Twenty-five groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (EC, pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, SO42−, HCO3, PO43−, NO3, and F) and the piper diagram characterized 60% of them as Ca-Mg-Cl type. Analysis of fluoride (0.1 to 2.4 mg/l) shows that 32% of the groundwater samples contain F over the permissible limit, affecting a region of 122.10 km2. Nitrate (0.1 to 148 mg/l) is over the permissible limit in 44% of the groundwater samples spread over an area of 429.43 km2. The total hazard indices (THI) of non-carcinogenic risk for children (0.21 to 4.83), women (0.14 to 3.35), and men (0.12 to 2.90) shows some of the THI values are above the permissible limit of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The THI-based non-carcinogenic risks are 60%, 52%, and 48% for children, women, and men. This investigation suggests higher health risk for children and also recommends that proper management plan should be adopted to improve the drinking water quality in this region in order to avoid major health issues in the near future.

Keywords

Fluoride Nitrate Urban groundwater Non-carcinogenic risk Total hazard index South India 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Karunanidhi
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Aravinthasamy
    • 1
  • Priyadarsi D. Roy
    • 2
  • R. M. Praveenkumar
    • 1
  • K. Prasanth
    • 1
  • S. Selvapraveen
    • 1
  • A. Thowbeekrahman
    • 1
  • T. Subramani
    • 3
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringSri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology (Autonomous),CoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Instituto de GeologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCiudad de MéxicoMexico
  3. 3.Department of GeologyAnna University, CEG CampusChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Earth SciencesPondicherry UniversityPondicherryIndia

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