Estimation of hazardous materials in water and their toxicity levels in Mahayel Aseer, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Abstract

This work aims to evaluate the different water sources available in Mahayel Aseer, KSA, chemically, toxicology and microbiologically. Several water samples, such as tap water, differentially desalinated water and bottled water, were analysed. Moreover, different metal ions and anions, including sodium, potassium, calcium, lead, cadmium, manganese, bicarbonate, fluoride, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and nitrite, were evaluated and assessed for human health. Bacterial and fungal pollutions arising from various water sources were also investigated. This study was conducted on polymer bottles and the best storage conditions. In order to acquire purified water safe for human consumption, certain recommendations pertaining to the steps of water treatment can be recommended.

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Acknowledgment

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Group Research Project under grant number (R.G.P.1/35/38).

Funding

The authors received funding for this work from the King Khalid University.

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Correspondence to M. M. El-Toony.

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Additional information

This work include evaluation of different sources of water and estimate their toxicity in different patterns such as migration of PET matrix residual into the packed water (bottled water) in order to choose the best conditions of bottled water storage. Investigation of hazardous materials such as different inorganic cations and anions has been carried out. Microbiological pollutants have been studied to estimate their effect on human health. Interpretations of different pollutants with geochemical studies and health assessment of the understudied city have been made (Mahayel Aseer, KSA). Recommendations for attaining the highly purified water have been briefly mentioned. Awareness distribution among the people at understudied city has been aimed by this work.

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El-Toony, M.M., Eid, G. & Algarni, H. Estimation of hazardous materials in water and their toxicity levels in Mahayel Aseer, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Environ Monit Assess 191, 779 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7820-6

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Keywords

  • Risk assessments
  • Groundwater
  • Inorganics
  • Organics
  • Microbes and pathogens
  • Pollution
  • Policy