Skip to main content

Towards integrated management of a shallow tropical lake: assessment of water quality, sediment geochemistry, and phytoplankton diversity in Lake Palakpakin, Philippines

Abstract

The limited carrying capacities of shallow tropical lakes render them more vulnerable to ecological problems like eutrophication. Unregulated human activities such as unsustainable aquaculture and urbanization can alter ecosystem dynamics rapidly, and this warrants more comprehensive researches than what has been previously conducted. Here, we presented an integrated assessment of the nutrient dynamics, phytoplankton diversity, and sediment geochemistry in Lake Palakpakin, a shallow tropical lake of volcanic origin, to understand its deteriorating ecological state. Water, phytoplankton, and sediment samples were collected, and in situ water quality measurements were done during wet and dry seasons in four critical areas in the lake, namely, the inlet, center, sanctuary, and outlet. Results revealed that high light extinction coefficient (1.13 m−1), high turbidity (28 NTU), high phosphate concentration (> 2.0.5 mg/L), and the abundance of Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena helicoidea, and Lyngbya sp. indicate that from a relatively healthy lake in 2008, Lake Palakpakin has become a eutrophic to hypereutrophic freshwater body. High concentrations of available nutrients such as N and P were detected in the center and sanctuary sediments, which drive the internal nutrient loading in the lake. We recommend that management efforts be directed towards a whole-ecosystem approach in addressing the problem of eutrophication, especially in shallow tropical lakes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Abou, Y., Fiogbe, E., Aina, M., & Buldgen, A. (2010). Evaluation of nitrogen and phosphorus wastes produced by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed Azolla-diets in concrete tanks. International Journal of Biological & Chemical Sciences, 4, 502–507.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bang-asan, M. R., Mitsuhashi, M. V., Balolong, M. P., & Hallare, A. V. (2016). Histopathological effects of aquafarming on the liver and testes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) from Taal Lake, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development, 20, 54–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barg, U. C. (1992). Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture development (no. 328). Food & Agriculture Organization.

  • Bellinger, E., & Sigee, D. (2010). Freshwater algae: identification and use as bioindicators. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bouwman, A. F., Bierkens, M. F. P., Griffioen, J., Hefting, M. M., Middelburg, J. J., Middelkoop, H., & Slomp, C. P. (2013). Nutrient dynamics, transfer and retention along the aquatic continuum from land to ocean: towards integration of ecological and biogeochemical models. Biogeosciences, 10, 1–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brillo, B. B. C. (2015). The status of Philippine lake studies: scholarly deficit in social science and small-lake research. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 15, 78–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Britton, L.J. & P.E. Greeson. (1987). Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations.

  • Caasi, H. E., T. R. Perez, A. Hufemia & R.J. Claveria. (2006). An assessment of the benthic community structure: implications on the water quality of Lake Palacpaquen, San Pablo City, Philippines. Proceedings of the 10th Zonal Research and Development Review, 9-10.

  • Claveria, R. J. R., Perez, T. R., Tesorero, J. K. V., Pasaporte, B. J. D., & Bayugo, G. M. S. (2008). Petrographic analysis of rocks and sediments around the Seven Lakes of San Pablo, Laguna: implications regarding sulfate distribution and provenance. Loyola Schools Review, 6, 64–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Department of Environment and Natural Resources Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2016-08, Water quality guidelines and general effluent standards of 2016.

  • Ding, S., Chen, M., Gong, M., Fan, X., Qin, B., Xu, H., Gao, S. S., Jin, Z., Tsang, D. C. W., & Zhang, C. (2018). Internal phosphorus loading from sediments causes seasonal nitrogen limitation for harmful algal blooms. Science of the Total Environment, 625, 872–884.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dudgeon, D. (2000). Conservation of freshwater biodiversity in oriental Asia: constraints, conflicts, and challenges to science and sustainability. The Japanese Society of Limnology, 1, 237–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feuchtmayr, H., Moran, R., Hatton, K., Connor, L., Heyes, T., Moss, B., Harvey, I., & Atkinson, D. (2009). Global warming and eutrophication: effects on water chemistry and autotrophic communities in experimental hypertrophic shallow lake mesocosms. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 713–723.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Focken, U., & Becker, K. (1998). Metabolic fractionation of stable carbon isotopes: implications of different proximate compositions for studies of the aquatic food webs using δ13C data. Oecologia, 115, 337–343.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guerrero, R.D., III. (2001). SEAFDEC contribution to the ecological awareness of Philippine lakes. In CB Santiago, ML Cuvin-Aralar and ZU Basiao (eds.) Conservation and Ecological Management of Philippine Lakes in Relation to Fisheries and Aquaculture (pp. 19–23). Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, Iloilo, Philippines; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Quezon City, Philippines.

  • Hallare, A. V., Seiler, T. B., & Hollert, H. (2011). The versatile, changing, and advancing roles of fish in sediment toxicity assessment: a review. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11, 141–173.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hallare, A. V., Factor, P. A., Santos, E. K., & Hollert, H. (2009). Assessing the impact of fish cage culture on Taal Lake (Philippines) water and sediment quality using the zebrafish embryo assay. Philippine Journal of Science, 138, 91–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamazaki, T., & Paningbatan, E. P., Jr. (1988). Procedures for soil analysis (94 pp). College of Agriculture: University of the Philippines Los Banos and Japan Tropical Agricultural Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardie, R. (2015). The cultural eutrophication and the political ecology of Lake Palakpakin, a tropical crater lake used for aquaculture in Laguna, the Philippines. Loyola Heights, Quezon City: Department of Environmental Science, Ateneo de Manila University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hilario, J., & Perez, T. (2013). Predicting transport of nutrients from three tributary rivers of Taal Lake, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 96, 60–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hupfer, M., & Lewandowski, J. (2008). Oxygen controls the phosphorus release from lake sediments-a long-lasting paradigm in limnology. International Review of Hydrobiology, 93, 415–432.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Idso, S. B., & Gilbert, R. G. (1974). On the universality of the Poole and Atkins Secchi disk-light extinction equation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11, 399–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacinto, G. S. (2011). Fish kill in the Philippines-Déjà vu. Science Diliman, 23, 1–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jin, X., Wang, S., Pang, Y., & Chang Wu, F. (2006). Phosphorus fractions and the effect of pH on the phosphorus release of the sediments from different trophic areas in Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Pollution, 139, 288–295.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jeppesen, E., Meerhoff, M., Holmgren, K., González-Bergonzoni, I., Teixeira-de Mello, F., Declerck, S. A., et al. (2010). Impacts of climate warming on lake fish community structure and potential effects on ecosystem function. Hydrobiologia, 646, 73–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jost, L. (2006). Entropy and diversity. Opinion., 113, 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kibria, G., Nugegoda, D., Fairclough, R., & Lam, P. (1998). Can nitrogen pollution from aquaculture be reduced? NAGA, 21, 17–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laguna Lake Development Authority/Environmental Quality and Research Division. (2008). Water quality report of the seven crater lakes 2006–2008. Taytay, Rizal: LLDA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laguna Lake Development Authority. (2008). Water quality report on Palakpakin Lake. Taytay, Rizal: Environmental Quality Management Division, Laguna Lake Development Authority.

    Google Scholar 

  • La, V. T., & Coke, S. J. (2011). Advancing the science and practice of fish kill investigations. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19, 23–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Legaspi, K., Lau, A. Y. A., Jordan, P., Mackay, A., Mcgowan, S., Mcglynn, G., et al. (2015). Establishing the impacts of freshwater aquaculture in tropical Asia: the potential role of palaeolimnology. Geo: Geography and Environment, 2, 148–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • LeGresley, M., & McDermott, G. (2010). Counting chamber methods for quantitative phytoplankton. In UNESCO, microscopic and molecular methods for quantitative phytoplankton analysis (pp. 25–30). Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, R. (2008). Phycology. New York City: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Lijklema, L. (1994). Nutrient dynamics in shallow lakes: effects of changes in loading and role of sediment-water interactions. Hydrobiologia, 275, 335–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Navarrete, I. A., Gabiana, C. C., Dumo, J. R. E., Salmo, S. G., III, Guzman, M. A. L. G., Valera, N. S., & Espiritu, E. Q. (2017). Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189, 145.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narimbi, J., Mazumder, D., & Sammut, J. (2018). Stable isotope analysis to quantify contributions of supplementary feed in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain) aquaculture. Aquaculture Research, 49, 1866–1874.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nikolai, S. J., & Dzialowski, A. R. (2014). Effects of internal phosphorus loading on nutrient limitation in a eutrophic reservoir. Limnologica, 49, 33–41.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nordvarg, L. (2001). Predictive models and eutrophication effects of fish farms. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Sullivan, P. E. & C. S. Reynolds. (2007). The lakes handbook (Vol. 2).

  • Officer, C., & Ryther, J. (1980). The possible importance of silicon in marine eutrophication. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 3, 83–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (1982). Eutrophication of waters: monitoring, assessment and control. Organisation for economic co-operation and development. Washington, DC: OECD Publications and Information Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Papa, R. D. S., & Mamaril, A. C., Sr. (2011). History of the biodiversity and limno-ecological studies on Lake Taal with notes on the current state of Philippine limnology. Philippine Science Letters, 4, 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perez, T., E. E. Enriquez, R. D. Guerrero III, D. Simon & F. Schiemer. (2008). Catchment characteristics, hydrology, limnology and socio-economic features of Lake Taal, Philippines. Aquatic ecosystems and development: comparative Asian perspectives. Biology of inland waters series. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 63-80.

  • Quintal, A., Gotangco, C. K., & Guzman, M. A. L. (2018). Forecasting urban expansion in the Seven Lakes area in San Pablo City, Laguna, the Philippines using the land transformation model. Environment and Urbanization ASIA, 9, 69–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rajauria, G., L. Cornish, F. Ometto, F. Msuya & R. Villa. (2015). Identification and selection of algae for food, feed, and fuel applications. In Seaweed sustainability Bedford, UK: Cranfield University: 315–346.

  • Schindler, D. W. (2012). The dilemma of controlling cultural eutrophication of lakes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 4322-4333.

  • Shams, M., & Ghorbani, N. (2013). Assessment of species diversity of phytoplankton under pollution effects of trout farms in Isfahan province. International Journal of Research in Botany, 3, 60–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, V. H., & Schindler, D. W. (2009). Eutrophication science: where do we go from here? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 201–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Søndergaard, M. (2007). Nutrients dynamics in lakes-with emphasis on phosphorus, sediment and lake restoration. Denmark: University of Aarthus.

    Google Scholar 

  • Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J. P., & Jeppesen, E. (2003). Role of sediment and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia, 506, 135–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J. P., & Jeppesen, E. (2001). Retention and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow, eutrophic lakes. The Scientific World Journal, 1, 427–442.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, F. J. (1994). Humic chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suthers, I. M., & Rissik, D. (2009). Plankton: a guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. CSIRO publishing.

  • Tammeorg, O., Horppila, J., Tammeorg, P., Haldna, M., & Niemistö, J. (2016). Internal phosphorus loading across a cascade of three eutrophic basins: a synthesis of short- and long-term studies. Science of the Total Environment, 572, 943–954.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tidwell, J. H., & Allan, G. L. (2001). Fish as food: aquaculture’s contribution: ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries. EMBO Reports, 2, 958–963.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trolle, D., Zhu, G., Hamilton, D., Luo, L., McBride, C., & Zhang, L. (2009). The influence of water quality and sediment geochemistry on the horizontal and vertical distribution of phosphorus and nitrogen in sediments of a large, shallow lake. Hydrobiologia, 627, 31–44.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • EPA, U. S. (2002). Methods for evaluating wetland condition: using algae to assess environmental conditions in wetlands. Washington, DC: Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vista, A., Norris, P., Lupi, F., & Bernsten, R. (2006). Nutrient loading and efficiency of tilapia cage culture in Taal Lake, Philippines. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 89, 48–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, X., Hao, C., Zhang, F., Feng, C., & Yang, Y. (2011). Inhibition of the growth of two blue-green algae species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena spiroides) by acidification treatments using carbon dioxide. Bioresource Technology, 102, 5742–5748.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Welch, E. B., & Cooke, G. D. (2005). Internal phosphorus loading in shallow lakes: importance and control. Lake and Reservoir Management, 21, 209–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe, J. A. (1979). Phreato-magmatic maars: the origin of explosive breccia pipes. Journal of the Geological Society of the Philippines, 33, 17–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, X., Wu, X., Hao, H., & He, Z. (2008). Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 9, 197–209.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank FARMC (Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council) Chairman Fernando “Pando” Espallardo and his family for their help in the field. We thank Carissa Quintana, Nathaniel Ragas, and Dr. Ma. Aileen Leah Guzman for their help during the field work.

Funding

This work was supported by a grant from the University Research Council of Ateneo de Manila University. G.P. Dicen was supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Science Education Institute Career Incentive Program in this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ian A. Navarrete.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(XLS 33 kb)

ESM 2

(XLS 26 kb)

ESM 3

(XLS 22 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Navarrete, I.A., Dicen, G.P., Perez, T.R. et al. Towards integrated management of a shallow tropical lake: assessment of water quality, sediment geochemistry, and phytoplankton diversity in Lake Palakpakin, Philippines. Environ Monit Assess 191, 485 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7617-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7617-7

Keywords

  • Eutrophication
  • Internal loading
  • Sediment geochemistry
  • Principal component analysis
  • Shallow lakes
  • Tropical limnology