Pesticide waste disposal among farmers of Moghan region of Iran: current trends and determinants of behavior

  • Abolmohammad Bondori
  • Asghar BagheriEmail author
  • Mohammad S. Allahyari
  • Christos A. DamalasEmail author


Unsafe disposal of pesticide waste at farms has serious consequences for the environment and public health. Investigation of disposal behavior of farmers towards pesticide waste after use helps to identify and improve their behavior. This study aimed to investigate how farmers dispose pesticide waste in Moghan area of Iran and factors influencing their behavior. A sample of 400 farmers, using multistage random sampling, was selected. Most respondents threw the empty pesticide containers into the general garbage, sold them to waste buyers or other farmers, threw them into irrigation canals, or dumped them at the farm. However, the majority of the farmers did not use the empty pesticide containers for home use (78.5%), nor did they send containers to recycling or pesticide supplying centers (84.1%). Almost half of the farmers (49.2%) had low awareness of pesticide risks. Married farmers, farmers who were happy with farming, farmers who had additional occupation, and farmers who had received training in integrated pest management (IPM) behaved more safely (P < 0.05) in pesticide waste disposal. Also, participants with academic degrees behaved more safely (P < 0.05) in pesticide waste disposal. Based on regression analysis, awareness of pesticide risks, spraying experience, distance to agriculture service center, and distance to the city accounted for 46% of farmers’ variation in pesticide waste disposal behavior. Farmers’ behavior in pesticide waste disposal after use is a critical point for reducing pesticide exposure and environmental contamination in Moghan region of Iran. Awareness creation and behavioral change communication are required to improve farmers’ attitudes towards disposal of pesticide waste along with training in IPM which minimizes pesticide use.


Awareness Containers Information Pesticides Risk 



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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural DevelopmentDemocritus University of ThraceOrestiadaGreece

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