Municipal wastewater treatment potential and metal accumulation strategies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Typha latifolia L. in a constructed wetland
This paper elucidates phytoremediation potential of two wetland plants (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Typha latifolia L.) for municipal wastewater treatment using constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms. The concentrations (mg L−1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Pb in municipal wastewater were higher than permissible Indian standards for inland surface water disposal; however, Mn and Ni were within the permissible limits. The pollutant removal efficiencies of planted CWs varied as electrical conductivity (EC) 67.8–71.4%; COD 70.7–71.1%; TKN 63.8–72.3%; Cu 75.3–83.4%; Cd 73.9–83.1%; Mn 74.1–74.5%; Cr 64.8–73.6%; Co 82.2–84.2%; Zn 63.3–66.1%; Pb 71.4–77.9%; and Ni 76–80%. Mass balance analysis revealed that the loss of metals from wastewater was equivalent to net accumulation in plants and natural degradation of metals. Metal accumulation strategies of plants were investigated using bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) of metals which indicated that both plants could be employed for phytostabilization (BCF > 1 and TF < 1) of Cu, Cd, Co, Pb, and Ni and phytoextraction (BCF > 1 and TF > 1) of Mn and Zn. The study demonstrated that a reduction of pollutants (except Pb) was observed within permissible levels (BIS) and suggested disposal of municipal wastewater into the inland surface water bodies after 20 days of treatment. The study concluded that both the plants could potentially be used for an efficient municipal wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands.
KeywordsPhytoremediation Bioconcentration factor Translocation factor Metal mass balance Chemical oxygen demand Nitrogen
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