Characterization of biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica at the air-liquid interface in aquatic environments

  • José Andrés Medrano-Félix
  • Cristóbal Chaidez
  • Kristina D. Mena
  • María del Socorro Soto-Galindo
  • Nohelia Castro-del Campo


Survival of bacterial pathogens in different environments is due, in part, to their ability to form biofilms. Four wild-type Salmonella enterica strains, two Oranienburg and two Saintpaul isolated from river water and animal feces, were tested for biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface under stressful conditions (pH and salinity treatments such as pH 3, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 7, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 10, NaCl 4.5 w/v; pH 3, Nacl 0.5 w/v; pH 7, NaCl 0.5 w/v; and pH 10, NaCl 0.5 w/v); Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 was used as a control strain. Salmonella Oranienburg and Saintpaul from feces were moderately hydrophobic and motile, while S. Saintpaul from water and the control strain S. Typhimurium showed high hydrophobicity, which helped them form more resistant biofilms than S. Oranienburg. Under stressful conditions, all strains experienced difficulties in forming biofilms. Salmonella Saintpaul and Typhimurium expressed the red dry and rough (RDAR) morphotype and were able to form biofilm at air-liquid interface, contrarily to Oranienburg that showed incomplete rough morphology. This study contributes to the knowledge of biofilm formation as a survival strategy for Salmonella in aquatic environments.


Wild type Salmonella strains Biofilm formation Air-liquid interface Morphotype Abiotic stress 



Authors thank Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for its financial support through grant ID: 164601 of the Convocatoria de Investigación Científica Básica SEP-CONACyT 2010.

Authors also thank National Laboratory for Research in Food Safety of the Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, Unidad Culiacán, and Bs. Célida Martínez Rodríguez for the technical support during this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Andrés Medrano-Félix
    • 1
  • Cristóbal Chaidez
    • 2
  • Kristina D. Mena
    • 3
  • María del Socorro Soto-Galindo
    • 2
  • Nohelia Castro-del Campo
    • 2
  1. 1.CONACYT-Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C., Coordinación Regional CuliacánLaboratorio Nacional para la Investigación en Inocuidad AlimentariaCuliacánMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C., Coordinación Regional CuliacánLaboratorio Nacional para la Investigación en Inocuidad AlimentariaCuliacánMexico
  3. 3.Health Science Center at HoustonThe University of TexasHoustonUSA

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