Time trend tendency (1988–2014 years) of organochlorine pesticide levels in the adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants

  • Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas
  • Stefan M. Waliszewski
  • Rubén Ruiz-Ramos
  • María del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela


The population that lives in areas where organochlorine pesticides were spread in the past is still exposed to them through contaminated food, particulate matter, and vapors. Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to metabolic reactions, they accumulate in tissues and fluids rich in lipids. The aim of the study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in forensic adipose tissue samples of adult inhabitants of Veracruz City, Mexico, and compare their time trend levels from 1988 to 2014. During the study, hexachlorobenzene (HCB); lindane; β-hexachorocyclohexane; p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp′DDE); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p′-DDT); and o,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p′-DDT) were determined. Our survey was divided into two periods: first, from the years 1988 to 1999, during which DDT was allowed to fight malaria and dengue vectors and the second from the years 2001 to 2014, after the DDT ban. A total of 1435 samples were analyzed. There were substantial differences in the forecasted time trend values of p,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDT in human adipose tissue samples in the two different periods. During the first period, p,p′-DDE decrease time trend was 1.198 mg/kg on lipid base per year; for the second one, decrease was 0.128 mg/kg on lipid base per year. p,p′-DDT decreased 0.507 mg/kg on lipid base during the first period and 0.039 mg/kg on lipid base for the second. The different concentrations may be explained by the cessation of fresh exposure after the first period and a more equilibrated decontamination tendency during the second period. This model was useful to show the decrease in the concentration of pesticides in human adipose tissue samples.


Organochlorine pesticides Time tendency Adipose tissue Veracruz, Mexico 



We are grateful to S. Farías-Calderón for proofreading.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

“All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the first degree relatives.

Supplementary material

10661_2018_6581_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (82 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 82 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas
    • 1
  • Stefan M. Waliszewski
    • 1
  • Rubén Ruiz-Ramos
    • 1
  • María del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Medicina ForenseUniversidad VeracruzanaVeracruzMexico
  2. 2.Universidad de OccidenteLos MochisMexico

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