The Alapahoochee watershed microgeographic structure and its potential influence on metal concentrations and genetic structure in the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti, within the watershed
- 20 Downloads
This study examines the microgeographic structure of the Alapahoochee watershed, part of the Suwannee River basin, south-central GA, USA, and relates it to variations in liver metal concentrations and genetic structure of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. One objective was to determine if liver metal concentrations in A. piscivorus differ between Grand Bay and Mud creeks, which form the watershed’s upper portion. Grand Bay Creek is relatively pristine, whereas Mud Creek is polluted with various metals. Genetic analyses were used to assess possible migration patterns between the creeks indicating whether the basin possesses a single population or two populations. Collections occurred in 2008 and 2009. Specimens were captured, euthanized, or collected as road kills, and liver metal concentrations were analyzed and DNA extracted. No differences in metal concentrations were detected between the creeks, except for nickel in females. Metal concentrations in A. piscivorus were not significantly different between males and females nor show a relationship to body size. Genetic analyses were limited to three primer sets, which amplified informative loci. Locus, CH4B, was highly divergent between the putative populations and particularly informative. Genetic structure indicates potential population isolation within the two creeks. Results suggest that two distinct A. piscivorus populations were present and those populations did not differ in their liver metal concentrations (exception being nickel), despite the differences in environmental metal concentrations in the areas. These findings provide new insight into metal accumulation and detoxification in these animals.
KeywordsMicrogeographic Metals Genetics Populations
Harvey B. Lilywhite is acknowledged for serving on the master’s thesis committee of the primary author. Jeremy Davis is thanked for providing access to his family’s holdings on the west side of Grand Bay Swamp. Tayler Jarvis is thanked for help in analyzing metal concentrations. Langdale Forestry Company is thanked for providing access to the west side of Mud Swamp. Grand Bay Hunting Club (now closed) is thanked for providing access to Site 6 north of Howell road.
- ASIH Guidelines. (2004). Http://www.asih.org/sites/default/files/documents/Resources/guidelinesherpsresearch2004.pdf. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- Barnett, J., Bechler, D. L., Denizman, C., Grable, J., Nienow, J., Turco, J., Tietjen, W., & Wood, G. L. (2007). Watershed restoration action strategy development in the Alapahoochee River watershed. Nonpoint Source Management Program, Section 319 Report. Environmental Protection Division, Department of Natural Resources, Georgia, USA.Google Scholar
- Bechler, D. L. (2006). A survey and analysis of fish diversity in the Alapahoochee River of South Georgia (abstract). Annual Meeting of Georgia Academy of Science, 24–25 March 2006. Georgia Journal of Science 64, (1), 28–29.Google Scholar
- Bechler, D. L., & Salter, J. S. (2013). The status of the blackbanded sunfish and other species of concern in the state of Georgia. Final report, Non-Game Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Social Circle, Georgia, Submission date 18 December 2013.Google Scholar
- Burger, J., Campbell, K. R., Murray, S., Campbell, T. S., Gaines, K. F., Jeitner, C., Shukla, T., Burke, S., & Gochfeld, M. (2007). Metal levels in blood, muscle and liver of water snakes (Nerodia spp.) from New Jersey, Tennessee and South Carolina. Science of the Total Environment, 373(2), 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Jeitner, C., Zappalorti, R., Pittfield, T., & DeVito, E. (2017). Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium concentrations in pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 72(4), 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0398-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Burkett, R. D. (1966). Natural history of cottonmouth moccasin, Agkistrodon piscivorus (reptilia). In E. Raymond Hall, H. S. Fitch, & F. B. Cross (Eds.), University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History. 17(9) (pp. 435–491). Lawrence: University of Kansas.Google Scholar
- Campbell, J. A., & Lamar, W. W. (1989). The venomous reptiles of Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Chaney, J. C., & Bechler, D. L. (2006). The occurrence and distribution of Heterandria formosa (Teleostei, Poeciliidae) in Lowndes County, Georgia. https://digitalcommons.gaacademy.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1281&context=gjs. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- Clark, A. (2006). Using microsatellite loci to determine the fine scale genetic structure of a complex of timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) dens in northeastern New York. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Conant, R., & Collins, J. T. (1998). A guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America (vol. 12). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
- Cross, C. L. (2002). Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (eastern cottonmouth) diet. Herpetological Review, 33(1), 55–56.Google Scholar
- Dai, Z., Amatya, D. M., Sun, G., Li, C., Trettin, C. C., & Li, H. (2008). Modeling the effect of land use change on hydrology of a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina. Journal, USDA Publications. https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/33891 & http://tigerprints.clemson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1208&context=scwrc. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- DeVault, T. L., & Krochmal, A. R. (2002). Scavenging by snakes: an examination of the literature. Herpetologica, 58(4), 429–436. https://doi.org/10.1655/0018-0831(2002)058[0429:SBSAEO]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
- ESRI. (2016). http://www.esri.com/?q=esri&form=EDGSPH&mkt=en-us&httpsmsn=1&refig=2fe7173d36d34613ad78aef05dc7adb2&sp=1&http%3A%2F%2Fwww.esri.com%2F=. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- ESRI. (2017). ARCGIS blog. Using and citing Esri data. https://blogs.esri.com/esri/arcgis/2010/12/03/using-and-citing-esri-data/. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2018). Wildlife Regulations & the Georgia Teacher. http://www.georgiawildlife.com/wildlife-and-the-classroom. Accessed 1 Jan 2017.
- Gibbons, J. W. (2003). Terrestrial habitat: a vital component for herpetofauna of isolated wetlands. Wetlands, 23(3), 630–635. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2003)023[0630:THAVCF]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
- Gloyd, H. K., & Conant, R. (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon complex: a monographic review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles: St. Louis.Google Scholar
- Google Earth. (2016).https://www.google.com/earth/. Google Inc. (“Google”), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, United States.
- Google Maps. (2016). https://firstname.lastname@example.org,-85.4787907,13z. Google Inc. (“Google”), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, United States.
- Grillitsch, B., & Schiesari, L. (2010). The ecotoxicology of metals in reptiles. Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 337.Google Scholar
- Jiang, Z. J., Castoe, T. A., Austin, C. C., Burbrink, F. T., Herron, M. D., McGuire, J. A., & Pollock, D. D. (2007). Comparative mitochondrial genomics of snakes: extraordinary substitution rate dynamics and functionality of the duplicate control region. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7(1), 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirkley, J. A. (2014). Biogeography and population genetic structure of the cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus, in the Alapahoochee watershed. Master’s thesis, Valdosta State University.Google Scholar
- Knight, R. A. (1991). Molecular systematics of the Agkistrodon complex (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University).Google Scholar
- Kofron, C. P. (1979). Reproduction of aquatic snakes in south-central Louisiana. Herpetologica, 44–50.Google Scholar
- LiCOR® Biosciences. (2011a). SagaGT™ software. Lincoln, NE.Google Scholar
- LiCOR® Biosciences. (2011b). LiCOR® reagents: sizing standards. https://licor.secure.force.com/catalog/LI_ProductListMain?categoryID=a0d6000000T9QdAAKandstore=bio.
- Lillywhite, H. B., Sheehy III, C. M., & McCue, M. (2002). Scavenging behaviors of cottonmouth snakes at island bird rookeries. Herpetological Review, 33, 259–261.Google Scholar
- McCleary, R. J. R. (2009). Evolution of venom variation in the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida).Google Scholar
- Palmer Drought Index. (2017). National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/prelim/drought/palmer.html. Accessed 1 Sep 2017.
- Rezaie-Atagholipour, M., Riyahi-Bakhtiari, A., Chee Kong Yap, M. C., Ghaffari, S., Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Z., & Ghezellou, P. (2012). Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(2) 416–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Riekerk, H., & Korhnak, L. V. (2000). The hydrology of cypress wetlands in Florida pine flatwoods. Wetlands, 20(3), 448–460. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2000)020[0448:THOCWI]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
- Roark, A. W. (2003). Comparative genetic analysis in insular and mainland populations of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Smith, P. W. (1961). The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Bulletin Illinois Natural History Survey, 28, 1–298.Google Scholar
- Sparling, D. W., Linder, G., Bishop, C. A., & Krest, S. K. (Eds.). (2010). Ecotoxicology of amphibians and reptiles (2nd ed.). Pensacola: SETAC.Google Scholar
- Sun, G., McNulty, S. G., Shepard, J. P., Amatya, D. M., Riekerk, H., Comerford, N. B., ... & Swift, L. (2001). Effects of timber management on the hydrology of wetland forests in the southern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 143(1), 227–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00520-X.
- Trauth, S. E., & McAllister, C. T. (1995). Vertebrate prey of selected Arkansas snakes. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 49(1), 188–192.Google Scholar
- Turner, B., Elder, J., & Laughlin, T. (1989). DNA fingerprinting of fishes: a general method using oligonucleoide probes. DNA Fingerprint News, 1, 15–16.Google Scholar
- Valdes, A. M., Slatkin, M., & Freimer, N. B. (1993). Allele frequencies at microsatellite loci: the stepwise mutation model revisited. Genetics, 133(3), 737–749.Google Scholar
- Weir, B. S., & Cockerham, C. C. (1984). Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution, 1984, 1358–1370.Google Scholar
- Willson, J. D., Winne, C. T., Dorcas, M. E., & Gibbons, J. W. (2006). Post-drought responses of semi-aquatic snakes inhabiting an isolated wetland: insights on different strategies for persistence in a dynamic habitat. Wetlands, 26(4), 1071–1078. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2006)26[1071,PROSSI]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
- Wright, S. (1978). Evolution and the genetics of populations: a treatise in four volumes: vol. 4: variability within and among natural populations (pp. 590). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Wright, C. (2013). Bridges sites as refuges for fishes. Master’s thesis, Valdosta, Georgia: Valdosta State University.Google Scholar