Analyzing the effects of urban expansion on land surface temperature patterns by landscape metrics: a case study of Isfahan city, Iran

  • Maliheh Madanian
  • Ali Reza Soffianian
  • Saeid Soltani Koupai
  • Saeid Pourmanafi
  • Mehdi Momeni


Urban expansion can cause extensive changes in land use and land cover (LULC), leading to changes in temperature conditions. Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters that should be considered in the study of urban temperature conditions. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of changes in LULC due to the expansion of the city of Isfahan on LST using landscape metrics. To this aim, two Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, which had been acquired, respectively, on August 2, 1985, and July 4, 2015, were used. The support vector machine method was then used to classify the images. The results showed that Isfahan city had been encountered with an increase of impervious surfaces; in fact, this class covered 15% of the total area in 1985, while this value had been increased to 30% in 2015. Then LST zoning maps were created, indicating that the bare land and impervious surfaces categories were dominant in high temperature zones, while in the zones where water was present or NDVI was high, LST was low. Then, the landscape metrics in each of the LST zones were analyzed in relation to the LULC changes, showing that LULC changes due to urban expansion changed such landscape properties as the percentage of landscape, patch density, large patch index, and aggregation index. This information could be beneficial for urban planners to monitor and manage changes in the LULC patterns.


Urban expansion Land use/land cover change Land surface temperature Landscape metrics Isfahan 



This research has been supported by the Isfahan University of Technology.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maliheh Madanian
    • 1
  • Ali Reza Soffianian
    • 1
  • Saeid Soltani Koupai
    • 1
  • Saeid Pourmanafi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Momeni
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural ResourcesIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Remote Sensing Division, Geomatic EngineeringUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran

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