Preliminary evidence of nanoparticle occurrence in water from different regions of Delhi (India)
- 63 Downloads
The objective of this study was to obtain preliminary evidence of metal-based nanoparticle (NP) occurrence in Delhi (India). Six sampling locations (inlets and outlets of two different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), groundwater, and river water) were collected in three independent sampling events. Microscopic analysis (TEM) found majority (40%) of the particles ranged between 150 and 200 nm followed by particles of size 100–150 nm (22%) at the inlet of WWTP, while at outlet, 90% of the particles were < 100 nm. Compared with the outlet of the WWTPs, particles at the inlet were found to be greater than 40%. Intensity-based particle size distribution (PSD) revealed particle size at influent in the range of 210 nm, while at effluent, particle size for both WWTPs ranged < 100 nm. Particles of size between 100 and 200 nm were found to get removed from both the treatment plants and thus making it evident that NP gets settled or adsorbed in sludge. Spectral analysis (EDX) further confirmed the presence of metals such as Al, As, Ag, Mn, Fe, Ti, and Zn at different weight percentages. Overall, findings of this study confirmed the presence of metal-based engineered NPs (ENPs) from anthropogenic sources and it cannot also be ruled out the possible formation of NPs within the wastewater from natural minerals. Moreover, to solve definitive clues for ascertaining the sources of NPs in complex samples, more sophisticated research techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with field flow fractionation, single-particle ICP-MS, and radio-labeling in combination or in single should be considered.
KeywordsNanoparticles Engineered Indian waters Yamuna Monitoring
This research work was partly supported by Department of Science and Technology (DST), (Grant No. DST/TM/WTI/2 K11/301) and by Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT Delhi), India. We thank Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility Laboratory at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, for their support in NP characterization.
- APHA, AWWA, & WEF. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (11th ed.). American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.51.6.940-a.
- Baranidharan, S., & Kumar, A. (2012). Engineered nanomaterials-based pollution in India. Current Science, 103(10), 1138.Google Scholar
- Beumer, K., & Bhattacharya, S. (2012). Nanotechnology: “risk governance” in India. Economic and Political Weekly, xlvii(4), 34–40.Google Scholar
- Bhattacharya, A., Dey, P., Gola, D., Mishra, A., Malik, A., & Patel, N. (2015). Assessment of Yamuna and associated drains used for irrigation in rural and peri-urban settings of Delhi NCR. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(1), 4146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4146-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Blaser, S. A., Scheringer, M., MacLeod, M., & Hungerbühler, K. (2008). Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of the Total Environment, 390(2–3), 396–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.10.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gao, J., Powers, K., Wang, Y., Zhou, H., Roberts, S. M., Moudgil, B. M., Koopman, B., & Barber, D. S. (2012). Influence of Suwannee River humic acid on particle properties and toxicity of silver nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 89(1), 96–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.04.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gottschalk, F., Sonderer, T., Scholz, R. W., & Nowack, B. (2009). Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, CNT, fullerenes) for different regions. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(24), 9216–9222. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9015553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaegi, R., Ulrich, A., Sinnet, B., Vonbank, R., Wichser, A., Zuleeg, S., Simmler, H., Brunner, S., Vonmont, H., Burkhardt, M., & Boller, M. (2008). Synthetic TiO2 nanoparticle emission from exterior facades into the aquatic environment. Environmental Pollution, 156(2), 233–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaushik, A., Kansal, A., Santosh, M., Kumari, S., & Kaushik, C. P. (2009). Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: assessment by metal enrichment factor of the sediments. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(1), 265–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar, A., Baranidharan, S., Ganguli, A. K., & Mittal, A. K. (2016). Towards managing nanotechnology-related water pollution in India. Current Science, 110(8), 2016.Google Scholar
- Kumar, P., Gurjar, B. R., Nagpure, A. S., & Harrison, R. M. (2011). Preliminary estimates of nanoparticle number emissions from road vehicles in megacity Delhi and associated health impacts. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(13), 5514–5521. https://doi.org/10.1021/es2003183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kvítek, L., Panáček, A., Soukupová, J., Kolář, M., Večeřová, R., Prucek, R., Holecová, M., & Zbořil, R. (2008). Effect of surfactants and polymers on stability and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs). Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(15), 5825–5834. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp711616v.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Limbach, L. K., Bereiter, R., Mller, E., Krebs, R., Glli, R., & Stark, W. J. (2008). Removal of oxide nanoparticles in a model wastewater treatment plant: influence of agglomeration and surfactants on clearing efficiency. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(15), 5828–5833. https://doi.org/10.1021/es800091f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, W., Sun, W., Borthwick, A. G. L., & Ni, J. (2013). Comparison on aggregation and sedimentation of titanium dioxide, titanate nanotubes and titanate nanotubes-TiO2: influence of pH, ionic strength and natural organic matter. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 434, 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.05.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neal, C., Jarvie, H., Rowland, P., Lawler, A., Sleep, D., & Scholefield, P. (2011). Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention. Science of the Total Environment, 409(10), 1843–1853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA. (2009). Targeted national sewage sludge survey sampling and analysis technical report. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC: United States https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/targeted_national_sewage_sluldge_survey_sampling_and_analysis_technical_report_0.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2016.
- Woodrow. (2011). The project on emerging nanotechnologies: consumer products inventory. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Washington DC. http://www.nanotechproject.org/. Accessed 10 December 2014.