The presence of vegetation in stream ecosystems is highly dynamic in both space and time. A digital photography technique is developed to map aquatic vegetation cover at species level, which has a very high spatial and a flexible temporal resolution. A digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera mounted on a handheld telescopic pole is used. The low-altitude (5 m) orthogonal aerial images have a low spectral resolution (red-green-blue), high spatial resolution (∼1.9 pixels cm−2, ∼1.3 cm length) and flexible temporal resolution (monthly). The method is successfully applied in two lowland rivers to quantify four key properties of vegetated rivers: vegetation cover, patch size distribution, biomass and hydraulic resistance. The main advantages are that the method is (i) suitable for continuous and discontinuous vegetation covers, (ii) of very high spatial and flexible temporal resolution, (iii) relatively fast compared to conventional ground survey methods, (iv) non-destructive and (v) relatively cheap and easy to use, and (vi) the software is widely available and similar open source alternatives exist. The study area should be less than 10 m wide, and the prevailing light conditions and water turbidity levels should be sufficient to look into the water. Further improvements of the image processing are expected in the automatic delineation and classification of the vegetation patches.
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The funding for this research was partly provided by the Research Fund Flanders (FWO, project no. G.0290.10) via the multidisciplinary research project ‘Linking optical imaging techniques and 2D-modelling for studying spatial heterogeneity in vegetated streams and rivers’ (University of Antwerp and University of Ghent) and party by Province of Antwerp, Departement Leefmilieu, dienst Integraal Waterbeleid (report number ECOBE-014-R179). V.V. thanks the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen) for personal research funding. J.S. is a postdoctoral fellow of FWO (project no. 12H8616N).
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Verschoren, V., Schoelynck, J., Buis, K. et al. Mapping the spatio-temporal distribution of key vegetation cover properties in lowland river reaches, using digital photography. Environ Monit Assess 189, 294 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6004-5
- Vegetation cover
- Very high spatial resolution
- Flexible temporal resolution