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Concentrations and origin of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of western Spitsbergen fjords (Kongsfjorden, Hornsund, and Adventfjorden)

  • Anna PouchEmail author
  • Agata Zaborska
  • Ksenia Pazdro
Article

Abstract

Contaminant profiles in sediment cores represent valuable natural archives of environmental contamination, by which contaminant sources and historical changes in contaminant input and cycling may be recognized. In the present study, we discuss the sedimentary profiles and historical trends of organic contaminants — polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) — in three fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact. The obtained results revealed no significant differences between the fjords Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, in the average levels of the analyzed contaminants. Levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 ng/g d.w. for ∑7 PCBs and from 37.3 to 1973 ng/g d.w. for ∑12 PAHs were measured. The observed spatial and temporal differences in contaminant levels are rather related to local variations in the fjords associated with the location of sampling stations. Higher concentrations of the ∑7 PCBs exceeding 1.00 ng/g d.w. were measured in sediment cores collected in the inner parts of both fjords, which remain under the influence of melting glacier outflows. Important concentrations of these contaminants were noticed in layers deposited recently, suggesting intensive supply of these substances from secondary sources. The observed levels are generally low and well below known established no effect levels. Only the concentration of fluoranthene exceeded the threshold effect level at several sampling stations. Moreover, fluoranthene concentrations in almost all Adventfjorden sediment layer samples were above probable effect levels, which can indicate a risk of adverse effects in exposed benthic organisms. The fluoranthene/pyrene and phenthrene/anthracene ratios, which are used for identification of hydrocarbon sources, suggest a dominance of PAHs of pyrolytic genesis in Kongsfjorden and Hornsund. In Adventfjorden, hydrocarbons of petrogenic origin were predominant. However, other sources like coal dust from stores on land are also possible at this location.

Keywords

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) Contamination Sediments Arctic Spitsbergen 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the project of Ministry of Science and Higher Education (nr IPY/285/2006). Some sediment cores were sampled within the GAME (nr DET-2012/04/A/NZ8/00661) and DWARF (nr Pol-Nor/201992/93/2014) projects. The work was also partially financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW), received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014–2018, and was supported by the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences under statutory activity task no. II. 2.

Supplementary material

10661_2017_5858_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 32 kb)
10661_2017_5858_MOESM2_ESM.docx (42 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 42 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of OceanologyPolish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland

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