Investigation of antibiotics in health care wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract

Hospital wastewater contains huge amounts of hazardous pollutants which are being discharged daily to environment with or without treatment. Antibiotics were among the important group of pharmaceuticals considered as a potential source of health risk for human and other living creatures. Although the investigations about the existence of antibiotics in hospital wastewater have gained concern for researchers in many countries, there is only one research conducted in Hanoi-Vietnam. Hence, in this study, investigations have been done to fulfill the requirement of real situation in Vietnam by accomplishing survey for 39 health care facilities in Ho Chi Minh City. As results, seven popular antibiotics were detected to exist in all samples such as sulfamethoxazole (2.5 ± 1.9 μg/L), norfloxacin (9.6 ± 9.8 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (5.3 ± 4.8 μg/L), ofloxacin (10.9 ± 8.1 μg/L), erythromycin (1.2 ± 1.2 μg/L), tetracycline (0.1 ± 0.0 μg/L), and trimethoprim (1.0 ± 0.9 μg/L). On the other hand, survey also showed that only 64% of health care facilities using conventional activate sludge (AS) processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, basic environmental factors (BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4 +-N, or total coliforms) were not effectively removed from the hospital wastewater due to problems relating to initial design or operational conditions. Therefore, 18% effluent samples of the surveyed WWTPs have exceeded the national standard limits (QCVN 28:2010, level B).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Al-Ahmad, A., Daschner, F. D., & Kümmerer, K. (1999). Biodegradability of cefotiam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin G, sulfamethoxazole and inhibition of waste water bacteria. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 37(2), 158–163.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. APHA (1998). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 20th version. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brown, K. D. K., Thomson, J., Chapman, B., Timothy, H., Mawhinney, & Douglas, B. (2006). Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater, and the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Science of the Total Environment, 366(2–3), 772–783.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. CEC-Commission of the European Communities (1996). Technical guidance document in support of commission directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances and commission regulation (EC) No. 1488/94 on risk assessment for existing substances. Part II. Environmental Risk Assessment, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg.

  5. Chang, X., Meyer, M. T., Liu, X., Zhao, Q., Chen, H., Chen, J.-a., Qiu, Z., Yang, L., Cao, J., & Shu, W. (2010). Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of three gorge reservoir in China. Environmental Pollution, 158(5), 1444–1450.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dinh, Q. T., Alliot, F., Moreau-Guigon, E., Eurin, J., Chevreuil, M., & Labadie, P. (2011). Measurement of trace levels of antibiotics in river water using on-line enrichment and triple-quadrupole LC–MS/MS. Talanta, 85(3), 1238–1245.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Duong, H. A. P., Nguyen, N. H., Hoang, H. T., Pham, T. T., Pham, H. V., Berg, V. C., Giger, M., Alder, W., & Alfredo, C. (2008). Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Chemosphere, 72(6), 968–973.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Eguchi, K., Nagase, H., Ozawa, M., Endoh, Y. S., Goto, K., Hirata, K., et al. (2004). Evaluation of antimicrobial agents for veterinary use in the ecotoxicity test using microalgae. Chemosphere, 57(11), 1733–1738.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Eslami, A., Amini, M. M., Yazdanbakhsh, A. R., Rastkari, N., Mohseni-Bandpei, A., Nasseri, S., et al. (2015). Occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Tehran source water, municipal and hospital wastewaters, and their ecotoxicological risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(12), 1–15.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. GARP- Vietnam National Working Group (2010). Situation analysis of antibiotic use and resistance in Vietnam. The Center for Disease Dynamics. Washington, DC: Economics & Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Halling-Sørensen, B. (2001). Inhibition of aerobic growth and nitrification of bacteria in sewage sludge by antibacterial agents. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 40(4), 451–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hernando, M. D., Mezcua, M., Fernández-Alba, A. R., & Barceló, D. (2006). Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluents, surface waters and sediments. Talanta, 69(2), 334–342.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hoa, P.T.P., Managaki, S., Nakada, N., Takada, H., Shimizu, A., Anh, D.H., Viet, P.H, Suzuki, S. (2011). Antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern Vietnam. Science of The Total Environment,409(15), 2894–2901.

  14. Huang, C. H., Renew, J. E., Smeby, K. L., Pinkerston, K., & Sedlak, D. L. (2001). Assessment of potential antibiotic contaminants in water and preliminary occurrence analysis. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 120(1), 30–40.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Huang, J. J., Hu, H. Y., Lu, S. Q., Li, Y., Tang, F., Lu, Y., & Wei, B. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in China. Environment International, 42, 31–36.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kovalova, L., Siegrist, H., Singer, H., Wittmer, A., & McArdell, C. S. (2012). Hospital wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactor: performance and efficiency for organic Micropollutant elimination. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(3), 1536–1545.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lin, A. Y. C., Wang, X. H., & Lin, C. F. (2010). Impact of wastewaters and hospital effluents on the occurrence of controlled substances in surface waters. Chemosphere, 81(5), 562–570.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Lindberg, R. H., Jarnheimer, P. A., Olsen, B., Johansson, M., & Tysklind, M. (2004). Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards. Chemosphere, 57, 1479–1488.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Liu, Q., Zhou, Y., Chen, L., & Zheng, X. (2010). Application of MBR for hospital wastewater treatment in China. Desalination, 250(2), 605–608.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mesdaghinia, A. R., Naddafi, K., Nabizadeh, R., Saeedi, R., & Zamanzadeh, M. (2009). Wastewater characteristics and appropriate method for wastewater management in the hospitals. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 38(1), 34–40.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. MONRE - Ministry of Vietnam Natural Resources and Environment (2010). National technical regulation on health care wastewater. QCVN 28:2010/BTNMT.

  22. Nikolaou, A.M., S. Fatta, D. (2007). Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387(4), 1225–1234.

  23. Prasertkulsak, S., Chiemchaisri, C., Chiemchaisri, W., Itonaga, T., & Yamamoto, K. (2016). Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time. Chemosphere, 150, 624–631.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Prayitno, Z. K., Yanuwiadi, B., & Laksmono, R. W. (2013). Study of hospital wastewater characteristic in Malang City. International Journal of Engineering And Science, 2(2), 13–16.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Radko, L., Minta, M., & Stypuła-Trębas, S. (2013). Influence of fluoroquinolones on viability of Balb/c 3 T3 and HepG2 cells. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 57(4), 599–606.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Robinson, A. A., Belden, J. B., & Lydy, M. J. (2005). Toxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to aquatic organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(2), 423–430.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Saigon Times (2010). Over half of clinics in city still discharge wastewater, The Saigon Times Daily. Available at http://english.thesaigontimes.vn/13360/Over-half-of-clinics-in-city-still-discharge-wastewater.html (visited on August, 5th 2016).

  28. Santos, L. H., Gros, M., Rodriguez-Mozaz, S., Delerue-Matos, C., Pena, A., Barceló, D., & Montenegro, M. C. B. (2013). Contribution of hospital effluents to the load of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters: identification of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals. Science of the Total Environment, 461, 302–316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Seifrtova, M. P., Lino, A., & Solich, C. M. (2008). Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters in Coimbra by liquid chromatography with a monolithic column and fluorescence detection. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391(3), 799–805.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Sharma, P., Mathur, N., Singh, A., Sogani, M., Bhatnagar, P., Atri, R., & Pareek, S. (2015). Monitoring hospital wastewaters for their probable genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(1), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Sim, W. J., Lee, J. W., Lee, E. S., Shin, S. K., Hwang, S. R., & Oh, J. E. (2011). Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from households, livestock farms, hospitals and pharmaceutical manufactures. Chemosphere, 82(2), 179–186.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Thu, T. A., Rahman, M., Coffin, S., Harun-Or-Rashid, M., Sakamoto, J., & Hung, N. V. (2012). Antibiotic use in Vietnamese hospitals: a multicenter point-prevalence study. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(9), 840–844.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Tin, N. T., Thanh, B. X., Hien, V. T. D., Dat, N. D., Dan, N. P., Chi, D. H. L., Ngo, H. H., & Guo, W. (2016). Performance and membrane fouling of two lab-scale sponge membrane bioreactors for hospital wastewater treatment at low flux condition. Separation & Purification Technology, 165, 123–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Topal, M., & Topal, E. I. A. (2015). Occurrence and fate of tetracycline and degradation products in municipal biological wastewater treatment plant and transport of them in surface water. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(12), 1–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Van Boeckel, T. P., Gandra, S., Ashok, A., Caudron, Q., Grenfell, B. T., Levin, S. A., & Laxminarayan, R. (2014). Global antibiotic consumption 2000 to 2010: an analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 742–750.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Verlicchi, P., Galletti, A., & Masotti, L. (2010). Management of hospital wastewaters: the case of the effluent of a large hospital situated in a small town. Water Science & Technology, 61(10).

  37. Watkinson, A. J., Murby, E. J., Kolpin, D. W., & Costanzo, S. D. (2009). The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: from wastewater to drinking water. Science of the Total Environment, 407(8), 2711–2723.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. WHO - World Health Organization (2012). Pharmaceuticals in drinking-water. WHO/HSE/WSH/11.05.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank for the research grant from National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) No. 105.99-2015.16, Ministry of Science and Technology – Vietnam. This study has been conducted under the framework of CARE-RESCIF initiative. In addition, the laboratory support of Mr. Tin and Mr. Thao are highly appreciated.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xuan-Thanh Bui.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vo, T., Bui, X., Cao, N. et al. Investigation of antibiotics in health care wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Environ Monit Assess 188, 686 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5704-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antibiotics
  • Hospital
  • Wastewater
  • Ho Chi Minh City