Skip to main content

Biomonitoring and exposure assessment of people living near or working at an Italian waste incinerator: methodology of the SPoTT study

Abstract

Only few studies on the health effect of waste incinerators were focused on human biomonitoring (HBM). Our aim is to describe a protocol for assessing early variation of selected items in a population group living close to a waste incinerator in Turin, Italy. A cohort of 394 subjects was randomly selected, among residents near the incinerator and residents far from it. To achieve this sample size, 765 subjects were contacted. The cohort was monitored before the start-up of the plant and will be followed up 1 and 3 years after, with measurements of respiratory function, selected blood and urine parameters including 19 metals, 17 congeners of PCDDs/Fs, 12 congeners of DL-PCBs, 30 congeners of NDL-PCBs, 11 OH-PAHs, specific hormones (T3, T4, TSH, cortisol and ACTH) and common health parameters. The same protocol is applied for plant workers and breeders living near the plant. Individual exposure to urban pollution and waste incinerator fallout were assessed through the use of mathematical models. Information on individual habits was assessed using a specific questionnaire. SPoTT is the first Italian study that adopts a longitudinal design of appropriate statistical power to assess health impacts of waste incinerator plants’ emission. The initial results comparing the baseline to the first follow-up are due at the end of 2016.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. Forecasting model for PCB and PCDD/F is very similar.

References

  • Alimonti, A., Bocca, B., Mattei, D., Pino, A. (2010). Biomonitoraggio della popolazione italiana per l’esposizione a metalli: valori di riferimento 1990–2009. Rapporti Istisan 10/22.

  • Ashworth, D. C., Elliott, P., & Toledano, M. B. (2014). Waste incineration and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review. Environment International, 69, 120–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bocio, A., Nadal, M., Garcia, F., & Domingo, J. L. (2005). Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: concentrations in autopsy tissues. Biological Trace Element Research, 106, 41–50.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caranci, N., Biggeri, A., Grisotto, L., Pacelli, B., Spadea, T., & Costa, G. (2010). L’indice di deprivazione italiano a livello di sezione di censimento: definizione, descrizione e associazione con la mortalità. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 34(4), 167–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caserini, S., Cernuschi, S., Giugliano, M., Grosso, M., Lonati, G., & Mattaini, P. (2004). Air and soil dioxin levels at three sites in Italy in proximity to MSW incineration plants. Chemosphere, 54, 1279–1287.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cordioli, M., Ranzi, A., De Leo, G.A, Lauriola, P. (2013). A Review of exposure assessment methods in epidemiological studies on incinerators. Journal Environmental Public Health, ID 129470.

  • Eeftens, M., Beelen, R., de Hoogh, K., Bellander, T., Cesaroni, G., Cirach, M., et al. (2012). Development of land use regression models for PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10) and PM(coarse) in 20 European study areas; results of the ESCAPE project. Environmental Science & Technology, 16, 11195–11205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferré-Huguet, N., Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2009). Monitoring metals in blood and hair of the population living near a hazardous waste incinerator: temporal trend. Biological Trace Element Research, 128, 191–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fierens, S., Mairesse, H., Heilier, J. F., Focant, J. F., Eppe, G., De Pauw, E., et al. (2007). Impact of iron and steel industry and waste incinerators on human exposure to dioxins, PCBs, and heavy metals: results of a cross-sectional study in Belgium. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 70, 222–226.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franchini, M., Rial, M., Buiatti, E., & Bianchi, F. (2004). Health effects of exposure to waste incinerator emissions: a review of epidemiological studies. Ann Ist Super Sanità, 40, 101–115.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Golini, M. N., Ancona, C., Badaloni, C., Bolignano, A., Bucci, S., Sozzi, R., et al. (2014). Morbidity in a population living close to urban waste incinerator plants in Lazio region (Central Italy): a retrospective cohort study using a before-after design. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 38, 323–334.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, C. A., Kogevinas, M., Gadea, E., Huici, A., Bosch, A., Bleda, M. J., et al. (2000). Biomonitoring study of people living near or working at a municipal solid-waste incinerator before and after two years of operation. Archives of Environmental Health, 55, 259–267.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jarup, L., Dudley, M. L., Babisch, W., Houthuijs, D., Swart, W., Pershagen, G., et al. (2005). Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA): study design and noise exposure assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1473–1478.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keune, H., Morrens, B., & Loots, I. (2008). Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective? Environmental Health, 7, S1–S11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, Z., Sandau, C. D., Romanoff, L. C., Caudill, S. P., Sjodin, A., Needham, L. L., et al. (2008). Concentration and profile of 22 urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in the US population. Environmental Research, 107, 320–331.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lonati, G., Cernuschi, S., Giugliano, M., & Grosso, M. (2007). Health risk analysis of PCDD/F emissions from MSW incineration: comparison of probabilistic and deterministic approaches. Chemosphere, 67, S334–S343.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mannetje, A., Coakley, J., Mueller, J. F., Harden, F., Toms, L. M., & Douwes, J. (2012). Partitioning of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between human serum and breast milk: a literature review. Chemosphere, 89, 911–918.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mari, M., Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2013). Body burden monitoring of dioxins and other organic substances in workers at a hazardous waste incinerator. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216, 728–734.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mari, M., Nadal, M., & Schuhmacher, M. (2014). Human exposure to metals: levels in autopsy tissues of individuals living near hazardous waste incinerator. Biological Trace Element Research, 159, 15–21.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattiello, A., Chiodini, P., Bianco, E., Forgione, N., Flammia, I., Gallo, C., et al. (2013). Health effects associated with the disposal of solid waste in landfills and incinerators in populations living in surrounding areas: a systematic review. International Journal of Public Health, 58, 725–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meneses, M., Schuhmacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2004). Health risk assessment of emissions of dioxins and furans from a municipal waste incinerator: comparison with other emission sources. Environment International, 30, 481–489.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, M. R., Hankinson, J., Brusasco, V., Burgos, F., Casaburi, R., Coates, A., et al. (2005). Standardisation of spirometry. The European Respiratory Journal, 26, 319–338.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nadal, M., Bocio, A., Schuhmacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2005). Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in hair of school children. Biological Trace Element Research, 104, 203–213.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Osius, N., Karmaus, W., Kruse, H., & Witten, J. (1999). Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and levels of thyroid hormones in children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107, 843–849.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parera, J., Serra-Prat, M., Palomera, E., Mattioli, L., Abalos, M., Rivera, J., et al. (2013). Biological monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the City of Mataró. A population-based cohort study (1995-2012. The Science of the Total Environment, 461-462, 612–617.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Porta, D., Milani, S., Lazzarino, A. I., Perucci, C. A., & Forastiere, F. (2009). Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste. Environmental Health, 8, 60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ramesh, A., Walker, S. A., Hood, D. B., Guillén, M. D., Schneider, K., & Weyand, E. H. (2004). Bioavailibility and risk assessment of orally ingested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. International Journal of Toxicology, 23, 301–333.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ranzi, A., Fustinoni, S., Erspamer, L., Campo, L., Gatti, M. G., Bechtold, P., Bonassi, S., Trenti, T., Goldoni, C. A., Bertazzi, P. A., & Lauriola, P. (2013). Biomonitoring of the general population living near a modern solid waste incinerator: a pilot study in Modena, Italy. Environment International, 61, 88–97.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schumacher, M., & Domingo, J. L. (2006). Long-term study of environmental levels of dioxins and furans in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Environment International, 32, 397–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shih, T. S., Chen, H. L., Wu, Y. L., Lin, Y. C., & Lee, C. C. (2006). Exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in temporary municipal waste incinerator maintenance workers before and after annual maintenance. Chemosphere, 64, 1444–1449.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Staessen, J. A., Nawrot, T., Hond, E. D., Thijs, L., Fagard, R., Hoppenbrouwers, K., et al. (2001). Renal function, cytogenetic measurements, and sexual development in adolescents in relation to environmental pollutants: a feasibility study of biomarkers. Lancet, 357, 1660–1669.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • WHO report (2007). Population health and waste management: scientific data and policy options. Italy: WHO workshop Rome 29-30 March 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zubero, M. B., Aurrekoetxea, J. J., Ibarluzea, J. M., Arenaza, M. J., Rodríguez, C., & Sáenz, J. R. (2010). Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator. The Science of the Total Environment, 408, 4468–4474.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank members of the Scientific Committee, Silvia Candela, Benedetto Terracini and Francesco Forastiere as well as the whole working group that assisted the SPoTT study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Antonella Bena.

Ethics declarations

Funding

The SPoTT study is supported by a financial grant from the Province of Turin (resolution n. 409-18423/2014 of 06/06/2014). The Province of Turin had no role in the design of the study, interpretation of the results or writing of the paper.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

SPoTT has received approval from the relevant local ethical committee. All subjects involved are required to undersign an informed consensus form.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bena, A., Orengia, M., Cadum, E. et al. Biomonitoring and exposure assessment of people living near or working at an Italian waste incinerator: methodology of the SPoTT study. Environ Monit Assess 188, 607 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5624-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5624-5

Keywords

  • Waste incinerator
  • Biomonitoring
  • Metals
  • PCDD/F
  • PAH