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Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods

Abstract

Effective treatment of textile effluent prior to discharge is necessary in order to avert the associated adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. In the present investigation, coagulation/flocculation processes were evaluated for the effectiveness of the individual treatment. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the physicochemical characteristics. The quality of the pre-treated and post-flocculation treated effluent was further evaluated by determination of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity was determined using WST-1 assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. NO was determined in cell culture supernatant using the Griess reaction assay. The IL-6 secretion was determined using double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA). Cytotoxicity results show that raw effluent reduced the cell viability significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the negative control. All effluent samples treated by coagulation/flocculation processes at 1 in 100 dilutions had no cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells. The results on inflammatory activities show that the raw effluent and effluent treated with 1.6 g/L of Fe-Mn oxide induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher NO production than the negative control. The inflammatory results further show that the raw effluent induced significantly (P < 0.001) higher production of IL-6 than the negative control. Among the coagulants/flocculants evaluated Al2(SO4)3.14H2O at a dosage of 1.6 g/L was the most effective to remove both toxic and inflammatory pollutants. In conclusion, the inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells can be used as sensitive biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation processes used for textile effluent treatment.

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Correspondence to Edmund J. Pool.

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The project was funded by funds from the NRF of South Africa (Grant number 74016).

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Makene, V.W., Tijani, J.O., Petrik, L.F. et al. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods. Environ Monit Assess 188, 471 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5441-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5441-x

Keywords

  • Textile effluent
  • Toxicity
  • Inflammation
  • Coagulation/flocculation
  • Interleukin 6
  • Nitric oxide