Multipesticide residue levels in UHT and raw milk samples by GC-μECD after QuEChER extraction method

  • Sana Jawaid
  • Farah N. TalpurEmail author
  • Shafi M. Nizamani
  • Abid A. Khaskheli
  • H. I. Afridi


In the present study, milk samples including raw and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk were analyzed for pesticide residue levels, including five pesticides, viz chloripyrifos, endosulfan (α and β), profenofos and bifenthrin by gas chromatography microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) after extraction by QuEChERS method. Further confirmation of the pesticide residue was done by GC-MS. The pesticide residual level in raw and UHT milk samples (n = 70) was determined in the range of 0.1–30 μg L−1. All UHT processed milk samples contain pesticide residues within permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, among raw milk samples, chloripyrifos (12 %), α (24 %), and β (14 %) endosulfan were found above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these four pesticide residues were also calculated as 1.32, 16.16, 5.30, 10.20, and 9.93 μg kg−1 body weight for chloripyrifos, endosulfan α, profenofos, endosulfan β, and bifenthrin, respectively. It is concluded that the raw milk samples showed higher prevalence of pesticide residues as compared to UHT processed milk.

Graphical abstract

Determination of pesticide residues in dairy milk by GC-μECD after QuEChERS extraction method


QuEChERS Endosulfan Bifenthrin Chloropyrifos Profenofos Milk GC μECD 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Jawaid
    • 1
  • Farah N. Talpur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shafi M. Nizamani
    • 1
  • Abid A. Khaskheli
    • 1
  • H. I. Afridi
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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