Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia
“Indigenous people” have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the “indigenous community” is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.
KeywordsIndigenous people (Orang Asli) Socio-economic status Environmental protected areas Poverty Malaysia
- Achea, T. N., Wangombe, A., & Khadioli, N. (2010). A logistic regression model to identify key determinants of poverty using demographic and health survey data.Google Scholar
- Anaya, S. J. (2009). Report of the special rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, James Anaya: addendum: report on the situation of human rights of indigenous peoples in Brazil. UN.Google Scholar
- Basu, S. K. (1994). A health profile of tribal India. Health Millions, 2, 12–14.Google Scholar
- Bulan, R. (2010). Indigenous peoples and the right to participate in decision-making in Malaysia. Discussion Paper presented for the International Expert Seminar on Indigenous peoples and the Right to Participate in Decision Making, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 20–22 January 2010.Google Scholar
- Cooke, M., Mitrou, F., Lawrence, D., Guimond, E., & Beavon, D. (2007). Indigenous well-being in four countries: an application of the UNDP’s human development index to indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 7(1), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Das, M. B. (2006). Do traditional axes of exclusion affect labour market outcomes in India?. Available at SSRN 1919070. Google Scholar
- Department of Statistics. (2008). Monograph series no. 3—‘Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia’.Google Scholar
- Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia (2010). QGIS at the federal department of town and country planning, Peninsular Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.qgis.org/en/site/about/.
- Economic Planning Unit (EPU) (2009). http://www.epu.gov.my/en/video-tahun-2007. Accessed 28 Oct 2014.
- Feiring, B., Coguox, A., Maclin, B., & West, G. (2003). Indigenous peoples and poverty: the cases of Bolivia Guatemala Honduras and Nicaragua.Google Scholar
- Filmer, D (2000). The structure of social disparities in education: gender and wealth. Annals of World Bank Policy Research working paper 2268.Google Scholar
- Fredericks, L. J., & Nair, S. N. (2008). Proceedings of the international conference on poverty and distribution amidst diversity: options and challenges for development. Kuala Lumpur: The Center for Poverty and Development Studies.Google Scholar
- Gomes, A. G. (2004). Looking for money: capitalism and modernity in an Orang Asli village. Subang Jaya: Centre for Orang Asli Concerns.Google Scholar
- Greene, W.H. (2000). Simulated likelihood estimation of the normal-gamma stochastic frontier function, Working Papers 00–05, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.Google Scholar
- Hall, G. and Patrinos, H. (2010). Indigenous peoples, poverty and development. Google Scholar
- Hall, G., & Patrinos, H. (Eds.). (2012). Indigenous peoples, poverty and development. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Hsu, H. J. (1990). Incidence of tuberculosis in the hunting tribe E-Lun-Chun in northeast China. Pneumologie, 44(1), 453–454.Google Scholar
- Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli (JAKOA) (1993). Retrieved from http://www.jakoa.gov.my/maklumat-orang-asli.
- Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli (JAKOA) (2011). Retrieved from http://www.jakoa.gov.my/maklumat-orang-asli.
- Kardooni, R., Kari, B. F., Yahaya, S. R., & Yusuf, S. H. (2014). Traditional knowledge of Orang Asli on forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 13(2), 283–291.Google Scholar
- Kari, F., NurulHuda, M. S., & Salleh, N. H. M. (2012). Income risk vulnerability and perception towards conservation: a community level analysis for Pulau Sibu-Tinggi Marine Park, Mersing. Journal of Tropical Marine Ecosystem, 1, 55–64.Google Scholar
- Klitgaard, R. (1991). Adjusting to reality: beyond state versus market in economic development. San Francisco: ICS Press.Google Scholar
- Lewis, M. A., & Lockheed, M. E. (2006). Inexcusable absence: why 60 million girls still aren’t in school and what to do about it. Center for Global Development.Google Scholar
- Maybury-Lewis, D. (2002). Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups and the state. Needham, Massachusetts: Allyn & Baker.Google Scholar
- Nicholas, C. (2000). The Orang Asli and the contest for resources: indigenous politics, development and identity in Peninsular Malaysia. IWGIA Document No. 95. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.Google Scholar
- Nicholas, C., & Engi, J. (2010). The YP. The Orang Asli and the UNDRIP: from rhetoric to recognition. Subang Jaya: Center for Orang Asli Concerns.Google Scholar
- Noor, M. A. (2012). Advancing the Orang Asli through Malaysia’s clusters of excellence policy. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 1(2).Google Scholar
- Ramirez, R. K. (2007). Native hubs: culture, community, and belonging in Silicon Valley and beyond. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Rosliza, A. M., & Muhamad, J. J. (2011). Knowledge, attitude and practice on antenatal care among Orang Asli women in Jempol, Negeri Sembilan. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 11(2), 13–21.Google Scholar
- Rovillos, R. D., & Morales, D. N. (2002). Indigenous peoples/ethnic minorities and poverty reduction. Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
- Sachs, J. (2006). The end of poverty: economic possibilities for our time. Penguin.Google Scholar
- Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modelling.Google Scholar
- Todaro, M., & Smith, S. (2003). Economic development. London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- UNDP, (2014). Study and review of the socio-economic status of aboriginal peoples (Orang Asli) in Peninsular Malaysia Retrieved from http://www.my.undp.org/content/malaysia/.
- United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) (2007). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf.
- Zin, R. H. M. (2009). Poverty reduction, social integration and development: the formula for peace? (The public lecture and keynote speech publication series. Institut Kajian Malaysia dan Antarabangsa Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia). Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Google Scholar