Separation of toxic rhodamine B from aqueous solution using an efficient low-cost material, Azolla pinnata, by adsorption method

  • Muhammad Raziq Rahimi KoohEmail author
  • Linda B. L. Lim
  • Lee Hoon Lim
  • Muhammad Khairud Dahri


This study investigated the potential of untreated Azolla pinnata (AP) to remove toxic rhodamine B (RB) dye. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time, and concentration were studied. Experiments involving the effects of pH and ionic strength indicated that hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions might be the dominant force of attraction for the RB-AP adsorption system. The kinetics modelling of the kinetics experiment showed that pseudo-second-order best represented the adsorption process. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limiting step, while the Boyd model suggested that film diffusion might be rate-limiting. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 72.2 and 199.7 mg g−1 at 25 and 65 °C, respectively. Thermodynamics study indicates spontaneity, endothermic and physisorption-dominant adsorption process. The adsorbents were regenerated to satisfactory level with distilled water, HNO3 and NaOH. Pre-treatment of adsorbent with oxalic acid, citric acid, NaOH, HCl and phosphoric acid was investigated but the adsorption capacity was less than the untreated AP.


Adsorption isotherm Kinetics Thermodynamics Azolla pinnata Rhodamine B dye 



The authors would like to thank the Government of Brunei Darussalam and the Universiti Brunei Darussalam for their support and Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES) of Universiti Brunei Darussalam for the usage of XRF machine. A special thanks to Dr. H.M. Thippeswamy of the Department of Agriculture (Soil and Plant Nutrition unit), Ministry of Industrial and Primary Resource, Brunei Darussalam for the provision of the A. pinnata sample.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Sciences Programme, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Brunei DarussalamBandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam

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