Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India

  • Munmun Chakarvorty
  • Akhil Kumar Dwivedi
  • Anil Dutt Shukla
  • Sujeet Kumar
  • Ambalika Niyogi
  • Mavera Usmani
  • Jayanta Kumar Pati


Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48–86 ppm; Zn, 360–834 ppm; V, 45–101 ppm; Ni, 20–143 ppm; Cr, 79–266 ppm; Co, 8.62–22.12 ppm and Mn, 313–603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10−8 m3 kg−1) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.


Sewage water Ganga and Yamuna Rivers Suspended sediments Geochemistry Magnetic susceptibility 



MC and MU acknowledge UGC’ CRET Fellowship Scheme. They thank the PLANEX, PRL, Ahmedabad for the ICP-MS facility used in the present study. JKP and AN thank GRBM Project (Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India) for the financial support. They also gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and critical suggestions received from the two anonymous reviewers which greatly improved the scientific content of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Munmun Chakarvorty
    • 1
  • Akhil Kumar Dwivedi
    • 1
  • Anil Dutt Shukla
    • 2
  • Sujeet Kumar
    • 1
  • Ambalika Niyogi
    • 1
  • Mavera Usmani
    • 1
  • Jayanta Kumar Pati
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nehru Science CentreUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Physical Research LaboratoryThaltej CampusAhmedabadIndia

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