Assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Gansu section of Yellow River, China
- 296 Downloads
The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd in 28 samples collected from bottom sediments in the Gansu section of Yellow River, China, were investigated in order to evaluate their distribution and pollution level. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Cu 15.52∼57.50 mg/kg, Fe 19593.24∼69963.42 mg/kg, Mn 472.70∼1491.67 mg/kg, Ni 5.10∼74.28 mg/kg, Zn 64.61∼173.83 mg/kg, Cr 57.68∼183.47 mg/kg, Pb 1.21∼28.36 mg/kg, and Cd 0.35∼4.25 mg/kg. The mean values of the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd. There were significantly positive correlations between Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, principal component analysis (PCA) extracted two factors with Eigenvalues explaining 62.15 % of the total variance. Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cr had a natural origin controlled by the first factor. Ni and Pb could originate anthropogenic sources controlled by the second factor. Cd could be affected by natural geological background and human activity. It was attributed principally to anthropogenic activities that the geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, and pollution load index of Cr were all higher than other measured metals. Zn appears to pose no risk at all of the sites of the system. The pollution class of sediment from the Gansu section in the upstream of Yellow River was 0∼1, from unpolluted to moderately polluted degree.
KeywordsHeavy metals Surface sediments Pollution assessment Yellow River
This work was supported by Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT0966).
- Chakravarty, M., & Patgiri, A. D. (2009). Metal pollution assessment in sediments of the Dikrong River, NE India. Journal of Human Ecology, 27(1), 63–67.Google Scholar
- Karageorgis, A. P., & Hatzianestis, I. (2003). Surface sediment chemistry in the Olympic Games 2004 sailing center (Saronikos gulf). Mediterranean Marine Sciences, 4(1), 5–22.Google Scholar
- Liu, J. J., & Liu, Y. (2013). Study on heavy metal sand ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 33(12), 3249–3254.Google Scholar
- Loska, K., Wiechula, D., Barska, B., Cebula, E., & Chojnecka, A. (2003). Assessment of arsenic enrichment of cultivated soils in southern Poland. Poland Journal of Environmental Studies, 12(2), 187–192.Google Scholar
- Muller, G. (1969). Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geological Journal, 2(3), 108–118.Google Scholar
- Muller, G. (1981). Die Schwermetallbelastung der Sedimente des Neckars und seiner Nebenflüsse Eine Bestandsaufnahme (The heavy metal pollution of the sediments of Neckars and its tributary. A stocktaking). Chemiker-Zei-tung, 105, 157–164.Google Scholar
- Shyamalendu, B. S., Abhijit, M., & Bhattacharyya, S. B. (2001). Status of sediment with special reference to heavy metal pollution of a blackish water tidal ecosystem in northern Sundarbans of west Bengal. Tropical Ecology, 42(1), 127–132.Google Scholar
- Wang, J., Liu, G. J., & Fang, T. (2013). Assessment of pollution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediments of Huaihe River (Anhui section) by pollution load index. Journal of University of Science and Technology China, 43(2), 97–103.Google Scholar
- Zhu, H. N., Yuan, X. Z., Zeng, G. M., Jiang, M., Liang, J., Zhang, C., Yin, J., Huang, H. J., Liu, Z. F., & Jiang, H. W. (2012). Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Xiawan Port based on modified potential ecological risk index. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22, 1470–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar