Source identification and assessment of sediment contamination of trace metals in Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia
- 328 Downloads
The distribution of trace metals (spatial and temporal) and sedimentary fractions were investigated to identify the concentrations and sources of trace metals within Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia. A total of 59 surface sediments and six subsurface samples from core of the sediment were collected. The contamination factor and pollution load index indices used to evaluate environmental effects of trace metals. The study area was found to be uncontaminated with Cr and Ni, moderately contaminated with As and considerably contaminated with Cu, Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cr and Ni were below both effect range low and effect range median, while As, Cu, Zn and Pb were slightly above effect range low. The highest concentrations of these trace metals such as Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the north, northwest and southeast of the bay, close to discharge points, stormwater outlets and around boatyards and watercrafts. The spatial distributions of metals were strongly related to muddy particles and organic matter. The temporal sediments of metals declined with increased sediment depth, which reflects accumulation of trace metals since European settlement in this area. Furthermore, the source of the trace metals was found to be stormwater outlets, gasoline fumes, boatyards and other human activities.
KeywordKogarah Bay Sediments Trace metals Contaminations Statistical analysis
This paper is a part of author Ph.D. thesis undertaken at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong. It was financially supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraqi Government and GeoQuest Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Australia.
- Jones, B. G., Killian, H. E., Chenhall, B. E., & Sloss, C. R. (2003). Anthropogenic effects in a coastal lagoon: geochemical characterization of Burrill Lake, NSW, Australia. Journal of Coastal Research, 19, 621–632.Google Scholar
- Kogarah Council (2014). Population, Personal communication. Google Scholar
- Li, J., & Heap, A. D. (2008). A Review of Spatial Interpolation Methods for Environmental Scientists. Geoscience Australia, 137pp.Google Scholar
- McLean, E., McPherson, B. L., & Hinwood, J. B. (2002). A Decision Support Tool for Prioritising Remediation Works in a Catchment/Estuarine Bay System Conference Proceedings of Integrative Modelling of Biophysical, Social, and Economic Systems for Resource Management Solutions: Proceedings of the International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Monash University. 548–553.Google Scholar
- Norrish, K., & Chappell, B. (1977). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In J. Zussman (Ed.), Physical methods in determinative mineralogy (pp. 201–272). London: Academic Press London.Google Scholar
- Romero, A., González, I., Fernández, I. M., & Galán, E. (2013). Evaluation of trace element contamination changes in soils using a new normalization factor: application to the guadiamar soils (SW Spain) affected by a mine spill in 1998. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 124, 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar