Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 10, pp 6587–6604 | Cite as

The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

  • Asam FaridEmail author
  • Perveiz Khalid
  • Khan Zaib Jadoon
  • Mohammed Soufiane Jouini


Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center.


Bannu Gambila Variogram Facies Paleogeomorphology 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asam Farid
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Perveiz Khalid
    • 1
  • Khan Zaib Jadoon
    • 3
  • Mohammed Soufiane Jouini
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of GeologyUniversity of PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum GeosciencesThe Petroleum InstituteAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3.Water Desalination and Reuse CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)ThuwalSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of MathematicsThe Petroleum InstituteAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates

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