Assessment of land cover changes & water quality changes in the Zayandehroud River Basin between 1997–2008
- 395 Downloads
Water quality of rivers is strongly influenced by landscape characteristics of their watershed, including land use /cover types, and their spatial configuration. This research evaluates the effects of land cover changes on the water quality of the Zayandehroud River, which is the most important river in the center of Iran. The main goal of this study was to quantify the change in rangelands, forests, and bare lands in the Zayandehroud river basin, which suffered intense human interference, in a period of 11 years (1997–2008), and to evaluate how landscape patterns (including the number of patches, edge density, percentage of rangelands, forests, and bare lands) influence on the 14 water quality indices (including BOD5, EC, NO3, P, and TDS) measured in 10 stations along the river. Results showed that from 1997 to 2008, bare lands increased from 5.8 to 20 %, while rangelands decreased from 70 to 55 % in the whole basin. The results indicated that water quality was significantly correlated with both the proportions and configuration of rangeland and bare land areas. The total edge (TE) of rangeland area had positive effects on water quality, especially on BOD5 and EC. Percentage of landscape (PLAND) and largest patch index (LPI) metrics of rangeland had positive effect on decreasing nutrient (NO3, PO4). The results showed that water quality was more likely degraded when there was high edge density (ED) of bare lands. Results of this study also revealed that degradation of rangeland lead to the degradation of water quality. Finding of this study highlights the importance of rangeland conservation in water quality management at landscape scale.
KeywordsLand cover change Rangeland Bare land Landscape metrics Water quality Zayandeh Roud Basin
We express our appreciation to the Isfahan regional water authority and the Department of Environment (DOE), Isfahan Provincial Directorate of Environmental Protection for providing us with the water quality data and useful information on the study area.
- Cretaz, A. L. & Barten, P. K. (2007). Land use effects on streamflow and water quality in the northeastern United States, Florida and London: CRC Press-Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 319 pp.Google Scholar
- Howarth, R., Donald, A., Cloern, J., Elfring, C., Hopkinson, C., Lapointe, B., et al. (2000). Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues in Ecology, 7, 1–17.Google Scholar
- Iserendinoa, M., Casauxa, R., Archangelsky, A. M., Di Prinzio, A. C. Y., Brand, A. C., & Kutschker, A. M. (2011). Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 612–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jensen, J. R., Cowen, D., Narumalani, S., & Halls, J. (1997). Principles of change detection using digital remote sensor data. In Integration of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing. New York: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
- McGarigal, K. (1995). Fragstats: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351. Portland: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
- Meyer, W. B., & Turner, B. L. (1994). Changes in land use and land cover: A global per-spective. New York: Cambridge Univ. 537 pp.Google Scholar
- Murray-Rust, H., Sally, H., Salemi, H.R. and Mamanpoush, A. (2000). An overview of the hydrology of the Zayandeh Rud Basin, Esfahan Province, Iran. IAERI-IWMI Research Reports 3.Google Scholar
- Olsen, A. R. (2009) Introduction to R Statistical Software, western ecology division, corvalis (541) 754–4790.Google Scholar
- Pour moghadas, H., Afsharzadeh, S., Saniei, M. (2001). Water pollution and river algae: study in Zayandeh Rood River–Isfahan, Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 6(2).Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team, (2007). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.Google Scholar
- Royappan, M. (2001), Survey of effect of change of land use to runoff by SWAT model in South Africa, Kentucky University, 482Google Scholar
- Salemi, H. R. (2004). An overview of the hydrology of the Zayandeh Rud Basin, Iran. Water and Wastewater (Isfahan), 1(50), 2–13.Google Scholar
- Sliva, L., & Williams, D. D. (2001). Buffer zone versus whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality. Water Resources, 34(14), 3462–3472.Google Scholar
- Strayer, D. L., Beighley, R. E., Thompson, L. C., Brooks, S., & Nilsson, C. (2003). Effects of land cover on stream ecosystems: roles of empirical models and scaling issues. Ecosystems, 6, 407–423.Google Scholar
- USEPA, (2001). Our Built and Natural Environments: a technical review of the interactions between land use, transportation, and environ-mental quality 2001, pp. 49. http://www.smartgrowth.org/. Accessed 12 May 2012.