Analysis of the invasion rate, impacts and control measures of Prosopis juliflora: a case study of Amibara District, Eastern Ethiopia

Abstract

The tree Prosopis juliflora, introduced to Ethiopia in the 1970s to curb desertification, is imposing significant ecosystem and socioeconomic challenges. The objectives of this study are therefore to analyze the dynamics and associated impacts of the P. juliflora invasion over the period 1973–2004 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the management measures implemented to date. This required the analysis of Landsat images, field surveys, the use of structured questionnaires, and interviews. P. juliflora was found to invade new areas at an average rate of 3.48 km2/annum over the period 1973–2004. The high germination nature of the seed, mechanisms of seed dispersal, and its wide-range ecological adaptability are the main drivers for the high invasion rate. By the year 2020, approximately 30.89 % of the study area is projected to be covered by P. juliflora. The expansion has affected human health, suppressed indigenous plants, and decreased livestock productivity. The management measures that have been implemented are not able to yield the desirable results because of the limited spatial scale, cost, and/or improper planning and implementation. Therefore, the formulation of a strategy for management approaches that include the engagement of the community and the limiting of the number of vector animals within the framework of the current villagization program remain important. Moreover, risk assessment should be completed in the future before an exotic species is introduced into a certain area.

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Acknowledgments

We thank FARM-Africa Project office at Amibara District for providing access to reports on P. juliflora control by Cooperatives. We thank also the district authorities and farmers in the study area for facilitating our fieldwork.

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Correspondence to N. Haregeweyn.

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Haregeweyn, N., Tsunekawa, A., Tsubo, M. et al. Analysis of the invasion rate, impacts and control measures of Prosopis juliflora: a case study of Amibara District, Eastern Ethiopia. Environ Monit Assess 185, 7527–7542 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3117-3

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Keywords

  • P. juliflora invasion
  • Landsat
  • P. juliflora management
  • Exotic species