Diwali is one of the largest festivals for Hindu religion which falls in the period October–November every year. During the festival days, extensive burning of firecrackers takes place, especially in the evening hours, constituting a significant source of aerosols, black carbon (BC), organics, and trace gases. The widespread use of sparklers was found to be associated with short-term air quality degradation events. The present study focuses on the influence of Diwali fireworks emissions on surface ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and BC aerosol concentration over the tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India during three consecutive years (2009–2011). The trace gases are analyzed for pre-Diwali, Diwali, and post-Diwali days in order to reveal the festivity’s contribution to the ambient air quality over the city. A twofold to threefold increase is observed in O3, NO x , and BC concentrations during the festival period compared to control days for 2009–2011, which is mainly attributed to firecrackers burning. The high correlation coefficient (~0.74) between NO x and SO2 concentrations and higher SO2/NO x (S/N) index suggested air quality degradation due to firecrackers burning. Furthermore, the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation-derived aerosol subtyping map also confirmed the presence of smoke aerosols emitted from firecrackers burning over the region. Nevertheless, the concentration level of pollutants exhibited substantial decline over the region during the years 2010 and 2011 compared to 2009 ascribed to various awareness campaigns and increased cost of firecrackers.
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The authors wish to thank the Director of the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology for his encouragement and support. Fruitful discussions and constant support extended by Prof. Shyam Lal, Dr. C.B.S. Dutt, and Dr. P.P.N. Rao, the Programme Director during the course of the project, are highly acknowledged. The authors wishes to thank Dr. Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis and Dr. Shailesh Kumar Kharol for their support during the manuscript preparation. We also acknowledge ATCTM under the ISRO-GBP trace gas program for the financial support and TIFR-BF at Hyderabad for providing the laboratory space.
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Yerramsetti, V.S., Sharma, A.R., Gauravarapu Navlur, N. et al. The impact assessment of Diwali fireworks emissions on the air quality of a tropical urban site, Hyderabad, India, during three consecutive years. Environ Monit Assess 185, 7309–7325 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3102-x
- Trace gases
- Air quality