Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 3, pp 2723–2733 | Cite as

Impacts of climate-induced changes on the distribution of pesticides residues in water and sediment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

  • Peter O. OtienoEmail author
  • P. Okinda Owuor
  • Joseph O. Lalah
  • Gerd Pfister
  • Karl-Werner Schramm


This study reports evidence of increased chlorpyrifos contamination in sediment and water in Lake Naivasha following its intensive application in the horticultural farms in the catchment area. Analytical results show that levels of chlorpyrifos residues were influenced by climate-induced rainfall pattern with higher levels reported during period of heavy precipitation with significant decrease during low rainfall. On average, the levels ranged between 14.8 and 32.8 ng g−1 in sediment during rainy season compared to a range of 8.5–16.6 ng g−1 in the dry season. Additionally, the mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in water ranged between 8.61 and 22.4 μg L−1 during rainy season and below detection limit (bdl) −13.6 μg L−1 in dry season as quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, independent t test analysis indicated that there was significant difference in concentration at p ≤ 0.05 between the seasons with respect to sediment and water samples. This demonstrated that climate-induced variations had considerable influence on contamination. While diazinon and carbofuran were equally applied intensively, their levels were below the detection limit in the all the samples analyzed. ELISA results were validated by the capillary-HPLC photodiode-array detector instrument analysis, and statistical comparison showed no significant difference between them. It was evident that chlorpyrifos residues determination in water and sediment by ELISA can be a useful strategy in environmental management and monitoring program, and a complimentary analytical tool to high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of chlorpyrifos detected in sediment and water were found to exceed recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life and preservation of water quality and may be hazardous if not regularly monitored.


Climate Pesticides ELISA Water Sediment Contamination 



The authors of this paper would like to thank Alexander von Humboldt foundation for offering Mr. Otieno an International Climate Protection and Nature Conservation fellowship at the Institute of Ecological Chemistry, German Centre for Environmental Health in Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter O. Otieno
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • P. Okinda Owuor
    • 1
  • Joseph O. Lalah
    • 4
  • Gerd Pfister
    • 2
  • Karl-Werner Schramm
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaseno UniversityMasenoKenya
  2. 2.Helmholtz Center Munich - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Molecular EXposomics (MEX)NeuherbergGermany
  3. 3.TUM, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fuer Ernaehrung und Landnutzung, Department fuer BiowissenschaftenFreisingGermany
  4. 4.Department of Chemical Sciences and TechnologyKenya Polytechnic University CollegeNairobiKenya

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