Water samples from selected locations of Nullah Lai and Koh-e-Noor textile mill in the metropolitan city of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, were collected. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were determined using standard analytical procedures in comparison with sites, locations and subsequent interval of 3 months. The results of the physicochemical analysis at different locations of Nullah Lai and Koh-e-Noor textile mill with an interval of 3 months were obtained in the following range: pH (7.16–8.29), temperature (17.8–28.8 °C), conductivity (1,005–3,347 μS/m), TDS (754.3–2,519.5 mg/L), turbidity (272.8–487.05 NTU), total hardness (300–452 mg/L), nitrates (10.11–22.95 ppm), calcium (74.31–139.2 ppm), chloride (127.72–396.16 ppm), sulphate (15.97–87.38 ppm), NaCl (210.5–631.1 ppm), Ni (0.30–0.72 ppm), Cd (0.005–0.03 ppm), Cr (0.2–7.4 ppm), Pb (0.12–0.73 ppm), Zn (0.03–0.08 ppm) and Cu (0.01–0.06 ppm). The highest value of physicochemical parameters (compared with Nullah Lai) was obtained in locations of Koh-e-Noor textile mill. The results obtained exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by the World Health Organization for drinking purpose but can be used for irrigation purposes after suitable treatment and purification.
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The financial assistance of Fatima Jinnah Women University for conducting this research Project is greatly appreciated and acknowledged.
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Iram, S., Kanwal, S., Ahmad, I. et al. Assessment of physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples. Environ Monit Assess 185, 2503–2515 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2727-5