The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors—industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system.
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The authors wish to thank Prof. J.K. Datta, Prof A.R. Ghosh, and Dr N.K. Mondal, Dept. of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal for their valuable suggestions and cooperation throughout this research work. USB thankfully acknowledges Prof. H Lahiri, Dept of English, The University of Burdwan and Mr. J Mondal, Asst. teacher, Mohanpur High School, Burdwan, West Bengal, India for their suggestions to improve the manuscript. The comments of the reviewers are highly appreciated.
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Banerjee, U.S., Gupta, S. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India. Environ Monit Assess 185, 2083–2094 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2690-1