Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 2, pp 2055–2065 | Cite as

Regional assessment of marine and estuarine sediment toxicity in Southern California, USA

  • Darrin Greenstein
  • Steven Bay
  • Matthew Jacobe
  • Carlita Barton
  • Ken Sakamoto
  • Diana Young
  • Kerry Ritter
  • Ken Schiff
Article

Abstract

Sediment toxicity was investigated at 222 stations in the Southern California Bight (SCB) during 2008. This represented the first time that assessment methods established by California's new Sediment Quality Objectives program were employed in a survey of this scale. The goal was to determine the extent and magnitude of sediment toxicity in the SCB, how toxicity compared among specific environments, and whether toxicity has changed over the last decade. Two toxicity tests were used: the 10-day amphipod whole sediment survival test with Eohaustorius estuarius and a 48-h embryo development test with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed at the sediment–water interface. Less than 1 % of the area of the SCB was found to be toxic to the amphipod test. No toxicity was found in offshore stations, but 14 % of embayment areas were toxic to the amphipods. The mussel test identified 13 % of the embayment areas to be toxic. Estuary and marina locations had the greatest areal extent of toxicity for both tests. The two toxicity methods agreed that sediments were not toxic at over half of the stations tested. The mussel test showed a greater magnitude of response than the amphipod. Sediment toxicity was shown to have declined in both extent and magnitude from levels measured in 1998 and 2003.

Keywords

Sediment toxicity Southern California Bight Sediment-water interface 

Supplementary material

10661_2012_2687_MOESM1_ESM.docx (82 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 82 kb)

References

  1. Anderson, B. S., Hunt, J. W., Hester, M., & Phillips, B. M. (1996). Assessment of sediment toxicity at the sediment–water interface. In G. K. Ostrander (Ed.), Techniques in aquatic toxicology (pp. 609–624). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. S., Hunt, J. W., Phillips, B. M., Fairey, R., Roberts, C. A., Oakden, J. M., et al. (2001). Sediment quality in Los Angeles Harbor, USA: a triad assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(2), 359–370.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, B. S., Lowe, S., Phillips, B. M., Hunt, J. W., Vorhees, J., Clark, S., et al. (2008). Relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols with the amphipods Eohaustorius estuarius and Ampelisca abdita. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69(1), 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. S., Phillips, B. M., Hunt, J. W., Clark, S. L., Voorhees, J. P., Tjeerdema, R. S., et al. (2010). Evaluation of methods to determine causes of sediment toxicity in San Diego Bay, California, USA. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73, 534–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM (2002). Standard guide for conducting 10-day static sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine amphipods (E1367). In 2002 Annual Book of ASTM Standards (Vol. 11.05, pp. 693-719). West Conshohocken: American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, A. M., Bay, S. M., Ritter, K. J., Moore, S. L., & Weisberg, S. B. (2007). Sediment quality in California bays and estuaries. Costa Mesa: Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.Google Scholar
  7. Bay, S. M., & Weisberg, S. B. (2012). Framework for interpreting sediment quality triad data. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. doi:10.1002/ieam.118.
  8. Bay, S. M., Jirik, A., & Asato, S. (2003a). Interlaboratory variability of amphipod sediment toxicity tests in a Cooperative Regional Monitoring Program. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 81(1–3), 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bay, S. M., Zeng, E. Y., Lorenson, T. D., Tran, K., & Alexander, C. (2003b). Temporal and spatial distributions of contaminants in sediments of Santa Monica Bay, California. Marine Environmental Research, 56(1–2), 255–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bay, S. M., Greenstein, D. J., Ranasinghe, J. A., Diehl, D. W., & Fetscher, A. E. (2009). Sediment quality assessment draft technical support manual. Costa Mesa: Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.Google Scholar
  11. Bay, S. M., Greenstein, D. J., Maruya, K. A., & Lao, W. (2010). Toxicity identification evaluation of sediment (Sediment TIE) in Ballona Creek Estuary. Final Report. Costa Mesa: Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.Google Scholar
  12. Beiras, R., & Bellas, J. (2008). Inhibition of embryo development of the Mytilus galloprovinicalis marine mussel by organic pollutants; assessment of risk for its extensive culture in the Galician Rias. Aquaculture, 277, 208–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapman, P. M., Anderson, B., Carr, S., Engle, B., Green, R., Hameedi, J., et al. (1997). General guidelines for using the Sediment Quality Triad. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 368–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeWitt, T. H., Swartz, R. C., & Lamberson, J. O. (1989). Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 8, 1035–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fairey, R., Roberts, C., Jacobi, M., Lamerdin, S., Clark, R., Downing, J., et al. (1998). Assessment of sediment toxicity and chemical concentrations in the San Diego Bay region, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17, 1570–1581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenstein, D., Bay, S., Jirik, A., Brown, J., & Alexander, C. (2003). Toxicity assessment of sediment cores from Santa Monica Bay, California. Marine Environmental Research, 56, 277–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holmes, R. W., Anderson, B. S., Phillips, B. M., Hunt, J. W., Crane, D. B., Mekebri, A., et al. (2008). Statewide investigation of the role of pyrethroid pesticides in sediment toxicity in California's urban waterways. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(18).Google Scholar
  18. Hunt, J., Markiewiez, D., & Pranger, M. (2010). Summary of toxicity in California Waters: 2001–2009. Sacramento: Prepared for Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program.Google Scholar
  19. Long, E. R. (2000). Spatial extent of sediment toxicity in U.S. estuaries and marine bays. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 64, 391–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lyon, G., & Stein, E. (2009). How effective has the Clean Water Act been at reducing pollutant mass emissions to the Southern California Bight over the past 35 years? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 154(01), 413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McPherson, C. A., & Chapman, P. M. (2000). Copper effects on potential sediment test organisms: the importance of appropriate sensitivity. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(8), 656–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Phillips, B. M., Anderson, B. S., Hunt, J. W., Thompson, B., Lowe, S., Hoenicke, R., et al. (2003). Causes of sediment toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in San Francisco Bay, California. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45, 492–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schiff, K., Diehl, D., & Valkirs, A. (2004). Copper emissions from antifouling paint on recreational vessels. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48(3–4).Google Scholar
  24. Schiff, K., Gossett, R., Ritter, K., Tiefenthaler, L., Dodder, N., Lao, W., et al. (2011). Southern California Bight 2008 Regional Monitoring Program: II. Sediment chemistry. Costa Mesa: Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.Google Scholar
  25. SFEI. (2010). 2008 annual monitoring results. The regional monitoring program for water quality in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP). Oakland: San Francisco Estuary Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Stevens, D. L., Jr. (1997). Variable density grid-based sampling designs for continuous spatial populations. Envirometrics, 8, 167–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stevens, D. L., Jr., & Olsen, A. R. (2003). Variance estimation for spatially balanced samples of environmental resources. Envirometrics, 14, 593–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SWRCB. (2008). Water quality control plan for enclosed bays and estuaries—part I: Sediment quality. Sacramento: State Water Resources Control Board.Google Scholar
  29. Tang, A., Kalocai, J. G., Santos, S., Jamil, B., & Stewart, J. (1997). Sensitivity of blue mussel and purple sea urchin larvae to ammonia. Paper presented at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21st Annual Meeting, Nashville, TNGoogle Scholar
  30. Tay, K. L., Doe, K., Jackman, P., & McDonald, A. (1998). Assessment and evaluation of the effects of particle size, ammonia, and sulfide on the acute lethality test. Environment Canada Atlantic DivisionGoogle Scholar
  31. USEPA. (1994). Methods for assessing the toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants with estuarine and marine amphipods (p. 140). Narragansett: Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  32. USEPA. (1995). In G. A. Chapman, D. L. Denton, & J. M. Lazorchak (Eds.), Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to west coast marine and estuarine organisms (1st ed., p. 661). Cincinnati: Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
  33. USEPA. (2008). National coastal condition report III. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  34. USGS. (2000). Final report on toxicity testing of sediments from the BEST/EMAP estuary group monitoring study. Corpus Christi: U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darrin Greenstein
    • 1
  • Steven Bay
    • 1
  • Matthew Jacobe
    • 2
  • Carlita Barton
    • 3
  • Ken Sakamoto
    • 4
  • Diana Young
    • 1
  • Kerry Ritter
    • 1
  • Ken Schiff
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern California Coastal Water Research ProjectCosta MesaUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Monitoring DivisionCity of Los AngelesPlaya Del ReyUSA
  3. 3.Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, San Jose Creek Water Quality LaboratoryWhittierUSA
  4. 4.Orange County Sanitation DistrictEnvironmental Laboratory & Ocean MonitoringFountain ValleyUSA

Personalised recommendations