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Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece

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Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca2+, Cl, HCO 3 , K+, Mg2+, Na+, NO 3 , SO 2−4 ), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO 3 values which may pose a risk to human health.

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The Trikala Municipality Water Utility Company is fully acknowledged for their help in the access to the pumping wells. The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers that helped improve the present manuscript.

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Correspondence to Georgios Papastergios.

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Skordas, K., Papastergios, G., Tziantziou, L. et al. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece. Environ Monit Assess 185, 81–94 (2013).

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