Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 12, pp 7597–7605 | Cite as

Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents

  • Majid ArvandEmail author
  • Elahe Bozorgzadeh
  • Shahab Shariati
  • Mohammad Ali Zanjanchi


Spectrophotometry in combination with ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied for the extraction and determination of formaldehyde in real samples. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with methyl acetoacetate in the presence of ammonia. The variation in the absorbance of the reaction product was measured at 375 nm. An appropriate mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluoro-phosphate [C6MIM][PF6] (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into a water sample containing formaldehyde. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1–20 ng mL−1 with the detection limit of 0.02 ng mL−1 and limit of quantification of 0.08 ng mL−1 for formaldehyde. The relative standard deviation (RSD%, n = 5) for the extraction and determination of 0.8 ng mL−1 of formaldehyde in the aqueous samples was 2.5%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents, and suitable results were obtained.


Formaldehyde Ionic liquid Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Wastewaters Spectrophotometry 



We gratefully acknowledge the post-graduate office of Guilan University for supporting this work.


  1. Gámiz-Gracia, L., & Luque de Castro, M. D. (1999). Determination of formaldehyde in liquid, solid and semisolid pharmaceuticals and cosmetics by flow injection–pervaporation. Analyst, 124, 1119–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. García-López, M., Rodríguez, I., & Cela, R. (2007). Development of a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method for organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers determination in water samples. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1166, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hopkins, J. R., Still, T., Al-Haider, S., Fisher, I. R., Lewis, A. C., & Seakins, P. W. (2003). A simplified apparatus for ambient formaldehyde detection via GC-pHID. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2557–2565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Horstkotte, B., Werner, E., Wiedemeier, S., Elsholz, O., Cerdà, V., & Luttmann, R. (2006). At-line determination of formaldehyde in bioprocesses by sequential injection analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 559, 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jiang, H., Qin, Y., & Hu, B. (2008). Dispersive liquid phase microextraction (DLPME) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for determination of trace Co and Ni in environmental water and rice samples. Talanta, 74, 1160–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kawamura, K., Kerman, K., Fujihara, M., Nagatani, N., Hashiba, T., & Tamiya, E. (2005). Development of a novel hand-held formaldehyde gas sensor for the rapid detection of sick building syndrome. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 105, 495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kiba, N., Sun, L. M., Yokose, S., Kazue, M. T., & Suzuki, T. T. (1999). Determination of nano-molar levels of formaldehyde in drinking water using flow-injection system with immobilized formaldehyde dehydrogenate after off-line solid-phase extraction. Analytica Chimica Acta, 378, 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li, Q., Oshima, M., & Motomizu, S. (2007). Flow-injection spectrofluorometric determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in water after derivatization with acetoacetanilide. Talanta, 72, 1675–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li, Z., Ma, H., Lu, H., & Tao, G. (2008). Determination of formaldehyde in foodstuffs by flow injection spectrophotometry using phloroglucinol as chromogenic agent. Talanta, 74, 788–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li, Q., Sritharathikhum, P., Oshima, M., & Motomizu, S. (2008). Development of novel detection reagent for simple and sensitive determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde and its application to flow injection spectrophotometric analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 612, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liang, P., Xu, J., & Li, Q. (2008). Application of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three phthalate esters in water samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 609, 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nagaraju, D., & Huang, S. D. (2007). Determination of triazine herbicides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with gas chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1161, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nash, T. (1953). The colorimetric estimation of formaldehyde by means of the Hantzsch reaction. Biochemical Journal, 55, 416–421.Google Scholar
  14. Pandey, S. (2006). Analytical applications of room-temperature ionic liquids: a review of recent efforts. Analytica Chimica Acta, 556, 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pierotti, D. (1990). Analysis of trace oxygenated hydrocarbons in the environment. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 10, 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Priha, E. (1995). Are textile formaldehyde regulations reasonable? Experiences from the Finnish textile and clothing industries. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 22, 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rezaee, M., Assadi, Y., Milani Hosseini, M. R., Aghaee, E., Ahmadi, F., & Berijani, S. (2006). Determination of organic compounds in water using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1116, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rezaee, M., Yamini, Y., Shariati, Sh, Esrafili, A., & Shamsipur, M. (2009). Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography–UV detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A in water samples. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1216, 1511–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rivero, R. T., & Topiwala, V. (2004). Quantitative determination of formaldehyde in cosmetics using a combined solid-phase microextraction–isotope dilution mass spectrometry method. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1029, 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sáenz, M., Alvarado, J., Pena-Pereira, F., Senra-Ferreiro, S., Lavilla, I., & Bendicho, C. (2011). Liquid-phase microextraction with in-drop derivatization combined with microvolume fluorospectrometry for free and hydrolyzed formaldehyde determination in textile samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 687, 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Salvador, A., & Chisvert, A. (Eds.). (2007). Analysis of cosmetic products. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  22. Shamsipur, M., & Ramezani, M. (2008). Selective determination of ultra trace amounts of gold by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Talanta, 75, 294–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shariati, Sh, Yamini, Y., & Rezaee, M. (2011). Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the preconcentration and determination of some organic sulfur compounds in aqueous samples. Monatshefte für Chemie, 142, 555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Toda, K., Yoshioka, K. I., Mori, K., & Hirata, S. (2005). Portable system for near-real time measurement of gaseous formaldehyde by means of parallel scrubber stopped-flow absorptiometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 531, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang, H. F., & Shi, Y. P. (2010). Temperature-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei samples. Talanta, 82, 1010–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang, D., Zhang, J., Li, M., Li, W., Aimaiti, G., Tuersun, G., Ye, J., & Chu, Q. (2011). A novel miniaturised electrophoretic method for determining formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in food using 2-thiobarbituric acid derivatisation. Food Chemistry, 129, 206–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majid Arvand
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elahe Bozorgzadeh
    • 1
  • Shahab Shariati
    • 2
  • Mohammad Ali Zanjanchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityGuilanIran

Personalised recommendations