Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 12, pp 7323–7328 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait

  • Abdulkareem Abdulraheem
  • Seham MustafaEmail author
  • Nabeel Al-Saffar
  • Muhammed Shahjahan


This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were <0.03 to 20.1 EU/ml with an average of 1.96 EU/ml. The average concentration of endotoxin in bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water.


Endotoxin Tap water Bottled water LAL test 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdulkareem Abdulraheem
    • 1
  • Seham Mustafa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nabeel Al-Saffar
    • 1
  • Muhammed Shahjahan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Authority for Applied Education and TrainingCollege of Health SciencesSafatKuwait
  2. 2.Quality Control Center, Ministry of HealthSafatKuwait

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