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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 9, pp 5239–5254 | Cite as

Biogeochemistry of mercury and methylmercury in sediment cores from Sundarban mangrove wetland, India—a UNESCO World Heritage Site

  • Mousumi Chatterjee
  • João Canário
  • Santosh Kumar SarkarEmail author
  • Vasco Branco
  • Nallamuthu Godhantaraman
  • Bhaskar Deb Bhattacharya
  • Asokkumar Bhattacharya
Article

Abstract

This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of total mercury (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment cores (<63 μm particle size; n = 75) of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, India. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in a Leco AMA 254 instrument and MeHg by gas chromatography–atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-AFS). A wide range of variation in HgT (0.032–0.196 μg g−1 dry wt.) as well as MeHg (0.04–0.13 ng g−1 dry wt.) concentrations revealed a slight local contamination. The prevalent low HgT levels in sediments could be explained by sediment transport by the tidal Hugli (Ganges) River that would dilute the HgT values via sediment mixing processes. A broader variation of MeHg proportions (%) were also observed in samples suggesting that other environmental variables such as organic carbon and microbial activity may play a major role in the methylation process. An overall elevated concentration of HgT in surface layers (0–4 cm) of the core is due to remobilization of mercury from deeper sediments. Based on the index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and low effects-range (ER-L) values, it is considered that the sediment is less polluted by HgT and there is less ecotoxicological risk. The paper provides the first information of MeHg in sediments from this wetland environment and the authors strongly recommend further examination of HgT fluxes for the development of a detailed coastal MeHg model. This could provide more refine estimates of a total flux into the water column.

Keywords

Mercury Methylmercury Sediment cores Ecotoxicological risk Sundarban mangrove wetland India 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was financially supported by two research projects bearing sanction numbers 09/028 (0776)/2010-EMR-I and 09/028(0738)/2009 -EMR-I funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The authors Mousumi Chatterjee and Bhaskar Deb Bhattacharya are grateful to CSIR for awarding them Research Associateship and Senior Research Fellowship, respectively.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mousumi Chatterjee
    • 1
  • João Canário
    • 2
  • Santosh Kumar Sarkar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vasco Branco
    • 2
  • Nallamuthu Godhantaraman
    • 3
  • Bhaskar Deb Bhattacharya
    • 1
  • Asokkumar Bhattacharya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaCalcuttaIndia
  2. 2.IPIMAR/INRB IPLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Academic Staff CollegeUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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